Pronunciation Lessons

English Pronunciation Lessons with JenniferESL (42 Video Files)

Jennifer is a very talented teacher. I really like watching her video lessons and her soft spoken female voice makes me totally understand English rather than listening to other tongue twisted native English speakers.

The English Pronunciation Lessons with JenniferESL feature topics:
• unvoiced “th”
• voiced “th”
• Rhythm through Rhymes
• /l/ in the initial position
• /l/ in the middle position
• /l/ in the final position
• “R” as a vowel sound
• “R” as a consonant sound
• “R” and “L”
• Word Stress
• Thought Groups
• Stress in phrases and sentences
• Advanced Stress Patterns
• Falling and Rising Intonation
• CAN’T and CAN
– Part One focuses on the pronunciation of the contraction CAN’T. An explanation and exercises are provided. Level: Intermediate to advanced.
– Part Two focuses on the pronunciation of CAN. An explanation and exercises are provided. Level: Intermediate to advanced.
• Omission of /t/ in spoken American English
• Pronunciation of T in American English
– The “true” T
– The flap T (or tap)

Download Links:



Colloquial English: a complete English language course

Real American/Frankly Speaking (eBook+Audiobook)

Big Talk a Lot Spoken English Course Book 1 and 2 (Printable)

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Effortless English(3)

Effortless English Program 4 DVD [Audio,video,book]

Author: A. J. Hoge

Effortless English uses the best research in the world, from top experts such as: Dr. StephenKrashen, Dr. James Asher, Dr. J. Marvin Brown, Dr. Ashley Hastings, Dr. Brenda Murphy,David Long and Blaine Ray. The research is clear– students who use Effortless English are better speakers than students who use textbooks, grammar, and self-study only. In every country, in every possible situation, students who learn with Effortless English methods always win against students who use old methods.

The course give you
* The incredible Way to Learn Vocabulary and Grammar Without Study– Listen & Answer Mini-Stories. These lessons are simple and amazing. You learn grammar and vocabulary without study or memorizing.

* The Deep Learning method that helps members use English automatically. No more translating. No more thinking. The words just come out.

* The way to learn English in a relaxing way by listening to real English articles about interesting topics.

* The way to avoid grammar study and instead learn grammar like children– naturally.

* How my best students learn, how they study,– and how you can learn English faster.

* How to raise your iBT TOEFL speaking and listening scores 20%, 30%, or even 40%.

* Lessons that help you learn English 4X faster.

VOl1 -Grammar for Beginer-Beginer Level English Lessons Grammar is not the key to speaking English easily, and fast. The best English learners are children, of course. Why? Because they don’t study grammar and they don’t learn from textbooks. They use the Effortless English Rules. This “Effortless� method is very powerful.

Very, very powerful!

When you use the Effortless Method, you learn excellent pronunciation. You learn vocabulary quickly and easily. You understand grammar automatically – without memorizing it. You don’t translate when you listen or speak. You speak English fast, and easily. You feel strong and relaxed when you speak English.

When you use Effortless English lessons, you become a member of a community. You use the Effortless English lessons, you write to other members, you make friends all over the world,and you learn to speak English easily.

Here’s what the program gives you:
* The incredible Way to Learn Vocabulary and Grammar Without Study- Listen & Answer Mini -Stories. These lessons are simple and amazing. You learn grammar and vocabulary without study or memorizing.

* The Deep Learning method that helps members use English automatically. No more translating. No more thinking. The words just come out.

* The way to learn English in a relaxing way by listening to real English articles about interesting topics.

* The way to avoid grammar study and instead learn grammar like children – naturally.

* How my best students learn, how they study, – and how you can learn English faster.

* How to raise your iBT TOEFL speaking and listening scores 20%, 30%, or even 40%.

* Lessons that help you learn English 4X faster.

* How to meet other English speakers and talk with them.

When you download the mp3 lessons, you would get everything you need to speak English easily and fast:

Vocabulary Lessons
These are listening lessons, not reading lessons. You learn new vocabulary by listening to me discuss new phrases. You do not study lists in a textbook. You learn phrases by listening. You download these lessons and put them on your computer or iPod. You listen to them anywhere.

Listen & Answer Mini-Stories
Next, I use the powerful Listen & Answer method to teach you English automatically. You do not read the story, you listen to it many times and answer questions. This is the most powerful

English lesson you will ever have. You learn vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation in a completely natural way. You answer questions fast– and automatically.

Point of View Story Lessons Point of View lessons are next, and they are amazing. I teach you English grammar, but you do not study grammar rules. You learn English grammar naturally, like a native speaker. You don’t study grammar rules– you learn grammar naturally, like a child.

Audio Articles
Next are real audio articles. These are real English articles about interesting topics. No text-books, and no textbook English. You improve your listening, vocabulary, and speaking by listening to these articles. It is automatic.

VOl2 -Flow English – Intermediate Level English Lessons
Flow English Lessons are the perfect addition to the Effortless English Lessons. Flow English Lessons focus mostly on deep learning of the past tense and the most common idioms. Flow English Lessons are also perfect for intermediate level learners who want to speak English faster, more easily, and more quickly.

Together, Flow English and Effortless English Lessons give you the perfect combination. You learn the most common idioms deeply. You learn the past tense deeply. You speak even faster. Flow English gives you the most common spoken English. Effortless English builds more– giving you more advanced speaking and listening. Of course, Flow English uses the same great system as Effortless English. You get the same great Vocabulary Lessons. You get the same great Text and Audio Stories. You get the same

great Listen & Respond Stories. You get the same great Commentaries.
Imagine yourself in a coffee shop, talking with an American. You are relaxed and smiling because you are communicating easily. The words come out quickly. You feel no stress, no doubt, no worry. You are a strong and respected English speaker. Your friends are surprised because you are speaking English so well. You can do it.

VOl3 -“Success” Business English Lessons-Advanced Level English Lessons
These are not normal, boring Business English Lessons. “Success” teaches you how to improve

your career, how to create a successful business, and how to make and save more money.
In these lessons you get:
* 8 complete lesson sets.
* The secrets to improving in your job or career
* The number one secret to success in business
* The “Effortless Success” audio-book, with text
* How to start your own small business
* How to market and grow your career or business

more info :

Vol4-Master Spoken English (Video course)
Designed as a self-teaching fluency-building phonics program, “Master Spoken English” provides comprehensive training via speech exercises and drills. Both fluent native speakers of English as well as those with basic English skills can watch this program to increase resonance,clarity, fluency, and expressiveness. The program provides a color-coded phonic system to aid viewers in the exercises. Word lists precede connected speech, with practice scenes (from actual movies) comprising the third and final level of training. The producers’ skill and attention to details such as lighting, composition, and camera work create a program that is useful, informative, and visually pleasing. This is a fine work. Recommended.

# Practical, Intensive Speech Training
# in relaxed settings, for anyone who wants more command of spoken English.
# Comprehensive Training in speech exercises and pronunciation drills.
# A Phonic System that therapeutically realizes vocal energy and explores the musical values of speech.
# Dozens of Practice Scenes from two feature films with all the text on screen color-coded to the phonic system.
# All Original Animation detailing lip and tongue articulation, and points of vibration.

All Original Music that amplifies the phonic properties of the course.
Lesson 1: Structural Action

Lesson 2: Neutral Vowels

Lesson 3: Consonant Action

Lesson 4: More Consonant Action

Lesson 5: Connected Speech

Lesson 6: Intonation & Rhythms

Lesson 7: Practice Scenes

Lesson 8: More Practice Scene


DOWNLOAD: Effortless English Program 4 DVD [Audio,video,book] | 3204MB

Pass if need:

Vol 1,2,3:

Vol 4:

Mirror: Adrive link:

Vol 1,2,3:

Vol 4:


Mirror: mediafire





Vol 4


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Effortless English(2)

There are five English courses of “Effortless English” in (mp3&pdf files).

1) Learn The 7 Rules For Excellent English
How you learn 4-5 times faster.
How you learn quickly, easily, and automatically– like a native speaker.
How you learn correct English grammar, without studying grammar rules.
RULE 1: Study Phrases, Not Individual Words
RULE 2: Don’t Study Grammar
RULE 3: The Most Important Rule- Listen First
RULE 4: Slow, Deep Learning Is Best
RULE 5: Use Point Of View Mini-Stories
RULE 6: Only Use Real English Lessons & Materials
RULE 7: Listen and Answer, not Listen and Repeat

Download Code:

2) Flow English (Intermediate Level Lessons)
Flow English Lessons focus mostly on deep learning of the past tense and the most common idioms. Flow English Lessons are also perfect for intermediate level learners who want to speak English faster, more easily, and more quickly

Download Code:


3) Success Business Lessons
8 complete lesson sets.
* The secrets to improving in your job or career
* The number one secret to success in business
* The “Effortless Success” audio-book, with text
* How to start your own small business
* How to market and grow your career or business

Download Code:


4) New method learning English
Effortless English uses the best research in the world, from top experts such as: Dr. Stephen Krashen, Dr. James Asher, Dr. J. Marvin Brown, Dr. Ashley Hastings, Dr. Brenda Murphy, David Long and Blaine Ray. The research is clear– students who use Effortless English are better speakers than students who use textbooks, grammar, and self-study only. In every country, in every possible situation, students who learn with Effortless English methods always win against students who use old methods.
The course give you
* The incredible Way to Learn Vocabulary and Grammar Without Study– Listen & Answer Mini-Stories. These lessons are simple and amazing. You learn grammar and vocabulary without study or memorizing.
* The Deep Learning method that helps members use English automatically. No more translating. No more thinking. The words just come out.
* The way to learn English in a relaxing way by listening to real English articles about interesting topics.
* The way to avoid grammar study and instead learn grammar like children– naturally.
* How my best students learn, how they study,– and how you can learn English faster.
* How to raise your iBT TOEFL speaking and listening scores 20%, 30%, or even 40%.
* Lessons that help you learn English 4X faster.

Download Code:


5) Real English Conversation Pack

The Real English Conversation Pack builds on the Effortless English system.
In these lessons, you get the same great Effortless English system you love.
Each lesson set contains a real conversation between native speakers. No actors.
All lessons also include:
* Audio Recording of a Real English Conversation
* Audio Vocabulary Lessons
* Mini-Story Lessons
* Text Transcripts for EVERYTHING!
You learn
* The real, casual conversation that native English speakers use everyday with each other. This is not formal English. This is the real English that real people use.
* A huge number of common idioms – the slang you can’t find in a dictionary or textbook.
* Real conversations about real topics – the topics that real people talk about in their daily s.
And that’s not all! You’ll ALSO discover:
* How to automatically speak like a native speaker.
* How to never be confused by native speakers again.
* How to learn grammar effortlessly, without studying grammar rules.
* How to learn vocabulary 3-4 times faster, without memorizing.
* How to improve your TOEFL speaking score.
* How native speakers really pronounce words and phrases- it’s not like textbooks and it’s not like CNN

Download Code:


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Effortless English

Effortless English: New Method Learning English (eBook+Audio)

best English learners are children, of course. Why? Because they don’t study grammar and they don’t learn from textbooks. They use our rules and tips. This “Effortless” method is very powerful. Very, very powerful!

When you use the Effortless Method, you learn excellent pronunciation. You learn vocabulary quickly and easily. You understand grammar automatically — without memorizing it. You don’t translate when you listen or speak. You speak English fast, and easily. You feel strong and relaxed when you speak English.

What you learn when you get the lessons:

  • The incredible way you Learn Vocabulary and Grammar Without Study: Listen & Answer Mini-Stories. Learn English automatically, with absolutely no “study” or memorizing.
  • The Deep Learning method that helps you use English automatically. Remember English words and grammar forever – and use them automatically. Feel great about your speaking ability.
  • The way you learn English in a relaxing way by listening to real English articles about interesting topics. Imagine thinking, smiling, and laughing while learning.
  • The way you avoid grammar study and instead learn grammar like children – naturally. This is it, the main method of all my lessons.
  • How my best students learn, how they study,– and how you can learn English faster too. To be successful, copy the most successful people. Learn how you can study like the best.
  • How you raise your iBT TOEFL speaking and listening scores 20%, 30%, or even 40%. The new TOEFL test requires a lot of listening and speaking- be fantastic at both!
  • Lessons that help you learn English 3-5X faster – learn much faster, simply by changing your learning method.
  • How you meet other English speakers and talk with them. Meet other friendly English learners just like you.

Each Audio English Lesson Features:

• Vocabulary Lessons
• Listen & Answer Mini-Stories
• Point of View Story Lessons
• Audio Articles best English learners are children, of course. Why? Because they don’t study grammar and they don’t learn from textbooks. They use our rules and tips. This “Effortless” method is very powerful. Very, very powerful!

When you use the Effortless Method, you learn excellent pronunciation. You learn vocabulary quickly and easily. You understand grammar automatically — without memorizing it. You don’t translate when you listen or speak. You speak English fast, and easily. You feel strong and relaxed when you speak English.

What you learn when you get the lessons:

  • The incredible way you Learn Vocabulary and Grammar Without Study: Listen & Answer Mini-Stories. Learn English automatically, with absolutely no “study” or memorizing.
  • The Deep Learning method that helps you use English automatically. Remember English words and grammar forever – and use them automatically. Feel great about your speaking ability.
  • The way you learn English in a relaxing way by listening to real English articles about interesting topics. Imagine thinking, smiling, and laughing while learning.
  • The way you avoid grammar study and instead learn grammar like children – naturally. This is it, the main method of all my lessons.
  • How my best students learn, how they study,– and how you can learn English faster too. To be successful, copy the most successful people. Learn how you can study like the best.
  • How you raise your iBT TOEFL speaking and listening scores 20%, 30%, or even 40%. The new TOEFL test requires a lot of listening and speaking- be fantastic at both!
  • Lessons that help you learn English 3-5X faster – learn much faster, simply by changing your learning method.
  • How you meet other English speakers and talk with them. Meet other friendly English learners just like you.

Each Audio English Lesson Features:

• Vocabulary Lessons
• Listen & Answer Mini-Stories
• Point of View Story Lessons
• Audio Articles



Phonics: Sing the Sounds (Video)
Big Polish-English Vocabulary (eBook+Audio)
Real American/Frankly Speaking (eBook+Audiobook)
Telephoning in English 2rd Edition (eBook+Audio)
101 American English Idioms (2 eBooks+Audio)

Improve Your American English Accent (eBook+Audio)

Improve Your American English Accent offers language learners an easy and enjoyable way to master the most challenging American English speech characteristics. Focusing exclusively on the core features that have the greatest impact on understanding American English speakers and being understood by them, it comprises six 35-minute lessons on three CDs, and a booklet containing written pronunciation guidelines and transcriptions of the sounds, words, and sentences introduced on the recording.

Each lesson is short enough to be completed at one sitting and is presented in a friendly and lively manner that the learner will find engaging.

About the Author
Charlsie Childs is a specialist in foreign accent reduction with many years of teaching experience


3 Audio CDs

Cambridge English 365 Student’s Book 2 (eBook+Audio)
Big Audio Lessons (eBook+Audio)
Effortless English Podcast (Audio)
Effortless English: Business English Success Lessons (eBook+Audio)
Effortless English: Flow English Lessons (eBook+Audio)
Effortless English: 7 Rules For Excellent English (eBook+Audio)

Barack Obama’s Victory Speech (eBook+Audio+VDO)
VOA Obama Wins (eBook+Audio)
Barack Obama’s Inaugural Address (eBook+Audio+VDO)

American English Materials

Learn American Slang with JenniferESL (8 Video Files)

Pronunciation Workshop’s® American Accent Video Training

Pronunciation Workshop® programs are a proven,effective and comprehensive solution to improving English language skills. Our training provides you with the tools you need to communicate effectively in English. With Pronunciation Workshop®, you will quickly learn to speak Clear, Correct and Confident English!

The Pronunciation WorkshopAmerican Accent Video Training Course consists of 15 video training sessions as follows:

• The Complete Training Manual
• The Most 800 Commonly Used Idioms in America
• Session 1 R and W
• Session 2 Voicing, S and Z
• Session 3 TH, Voiced T
• Session 4 F and V, Sh and Voiced SH
• Session 5 L
• Session 6 Word Endings
• Session 7 DG and Ch, H
• Session 8 Vowel Overview, I and EE
• Session 9 OW and AE
• Session 10 OO, UH, EH
• Session 11 AU, AH, A
• Session 12 Tongue Twisters
• Session 13 Phrase Reductions, Intonation
• Session 14 Reading Passages
• Session 15 Reading Passages (Part A+B)

eBooks Download
Videos Download

Effortless English: New Method Learning English (eBook+Audio)
Effective Presentation Skills: A Practical Guide to Better Speaking
Early Childhood Education [four volumes]

Communication Skills, 2nd Edition
Common Errors in English
A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage
CliffsTestPrep™ GRE® CBT, 6th Edition
Word-Formation in English: Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics
Forbidden Words: Taboo and the Censoring of Language
Lexical Categories: Verbs, Nouns, and Adjectives
Linguistic Universals
Phonics PPT Collection (156 files)
American Accent Program (Interactive eBook+Audio)
Pronunciation Power 1 + 2 + Idioms (CD-ROM)
Real American/Frankly Speaking (eBook+Audiobook)

Posted in >9 Materials Reviews | Tagged | 4 Comments

A More Perfect Union

A more perfect union

“We the people, in order to form a more perfect union.”

Two hundred and twenty one years ago, in a hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America’s improbable experiment in democracy. Farmers and scholars; statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787.

The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. It was stained by this nation’s original sin of slavery, a question that divided the colonies and brought the convention to a stalemate until the founders chose to allow the slave trade to continue for at least twenty more years, and to leave any final resolution to future generations.

Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution — a Constitution that had at is very core the ideal of equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty, and justice, and a union that could be and should be perfected over time. And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from bondage, or provide men and women of every color and creed their full rights and obligations as citizens of the United States. What would be needed were Americans in successive generations who were willing to do their part — through protests and struggle, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and civil disobedience and always at great risk —to narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and the reality of their time.

This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of this campaign — to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and more prosperous  America. I chose to run for the presidency at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together — unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction — towards abetter future for of children and our grandchildren.

This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people. But it also comes from my own American story.I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. I was raised with the help of a  white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in Patton’s Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I’ve gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world’s poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners — an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins, of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible.

It’s a story that hasn’t made me the most conventional candidate. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is more than the sum of its parts — that out of many, we are truly one.Throughout the first year of this campaign, against all predictions to the contrary, we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of unity. Despite the temptation to view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the Confederate Flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of African Americans and white Americans.

This is not to say that race has not been an issue in the campaign. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either “too black” or “not black enough.” We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of white and black, but black and brown as well.And yet, it has only been in the last couple of weeks that the discussion of race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn.

On one end of the spectrum, we’ve heard the implication that my candidacy is somehow an exercise in affirmative action; that it’s based solely on the desire of wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. On the other end, we’ve heard my former pastor, Reverend Jeremiah Wright, use incendiarylanguage to express views that have the potential not only to widen the racial divide, but views that denigrate both the greatness and the goodness of our nation; that rightly offend white and black alike.

I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy. For some, nagging questions remain. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in church? Yes. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely —just as I’m sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed.

But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren’t simply controversial. They weren’t simply a religious leader’s effort to speak out against perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this country — a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is wrong with America above all that we know is right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of radical Islam.

As such, Reverend Wright’s comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at a time when we need unity;racially charged at a time when we need to come together to solve a set of monumental problems — two wars,a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate change;problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all.

Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of condemnation are not enough. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place,they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the snippets of those sermons that have run in an endless loop on the television and You Tube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is no doubt that I would react in much the same way But the truth is, that isn’t all that I know of the man. The man I met more than twenty years ago is a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who spoke to me about our obligations to love one another; to care for the sick and lift up the poor. He is a man who served his country as a U.S. Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the country, and who for over thirty years led a church that serves the community by doing God’s work here on Earth — by housing the homeless,ministering to the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and prison ministries, and reaching out to those suffering from HIV/AIDS.

In my first book, Dreams From My Father, I described the experience of my first service at Trinity:“People began to shout, to rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying the reverend’s voice up into the rafters….And in that single note — hope! — I heard something else; at the foot of that cross,inside the thousands of churches across the city, I imagined the stories of ordinary black people merging with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and Pharaoh, the Christians in the lion’s den, Ezekiel’s field of dry bones. Those stories — of survival, and freedom, and hope — became our story, my story; the blood that had spilled was our blood, the tears our tears; until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of a people into future generations and into a larger world. Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and more than black; in chronicling our journey, the stories and songs gave us a means to reclaim memories that we didn’t need to feel shame about…memories that all people might study and cherish — and with which we could start to rebuild.”

That has been my experience at Trinity. Like other predominantly black churches across the country, Trinity embodies the black community in its entirety — the doctor and the welfare mom, the model student and the former gang-banger. Like other black churches, Trinity’s services are full of raucous laughter and sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of dancing, clapping, screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to the untrained ear. The church contains in full the kindness and cruelty, the fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the love and yes, the bitterness and bias that make up the black experience in America.

And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and baptized my children. Not once in my conversations with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and respect. He contains within him the contradictions —the good and the bad — of the community that he has served diligently for so many years.

I can no more disown him than I can disown the black community. I can no more disown him than I can my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed by her on the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe.

These people are a part of me. And they are a part of America, this country that I love.Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. I suppose the politically safe thing would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork. We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated racial bias.

But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now. We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about America — to simplify and stereotype and amplify the negative to the point that it distorts reality.The fact is that the comments that have been made and the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we’ve never really worked through — a part of our union that we have yet to perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to come together and solve challenges like health care, or education, or the need to find good jobs for every American.

Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at this point. As William Faulkner once wrote,“The past isn’t dead and buried. In fact, it isn’t even past.” We do not need to recite here the history of racial injustice in this country. But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist in the African-American community today can be directly traced to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow.

Segregated schools were, and are, inferior schools; we still haven’t fixed them, fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education, and the inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today’s black and white students.Legalized discrimination — where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions, or the police force, or fire departments — meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to future generations. That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between black and white, and the concentrated pockets of poverty that persists in so many of today’s urban and rural communities.

A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and frustration that came from not being able to provide for one’s family, contributed to the erosion of black families — a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the lack of basic services in so many urban black neighborhoods —parks for kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular garbage pick-up and building code enforcement — all helped create a cycle of violence, blight and neglect that continue to haunt us.

This is the reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of his generation grew up. They came of age in the late ’50s and early ’60s, a time when segregation was still the law of the land and opportunity was systematically constricted. What’s remarkable is not how many failed in the face of discrimination, but rather how many men and women overcame the odds; how many were able to make a way out of no way for those like me who would come after them.

But for all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American Dream, there were many who didn’t make it — those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. That legacy of defeat was passed on to future generations — those young men and increasingly young women who we see standing on street corners or languishing in our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future. Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of race, and racism, continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. For the men and women of Reverend Wright’s generation, the memories of humiliation and doubt and fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and the bitterness of those years. That anger may not get expressed in public, in front of white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or around the kitchen table. At times, that anger is exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for a politician’s own failings.And occasionally it finds voice in the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in some of Reverend Wright’s sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the most segregated hour in American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from solving real problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity in our condition, and prevents the African-American community from forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the anger is real; it is powerful; and to simply wish it away, to condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to widen the chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the races.

In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community. Most working- and middle-class white Americans don’t feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race. Their experience is the immigrant experience — as far as they’re concerned, no one’s handed them anything, they’ve built it from scratch. They’ve worked hard all their lives, many times only to see their jobs shipped overseas or their pension dumped after a lifetime of labor. They are anxious about their futures, and feel their dreams slipping away; in an era of stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a zero sum game, in which your dreams come at my expense. So when they are told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear that an African-American is getting an advantage in landing a good job or a spot in a good college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when they’re told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time.

Like the anger within the black community, these resentments aren’t always expressed in polite company. But they have helped shape the political landscape for at least a generation. Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge the Reagan Coalition. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism.

Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the middle class squeeze — a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices, and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and special interests;economic policies that favor the few over the many. And yet, to wish away the resentments of white Americans,to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns — this too widens the racial divide and blocks the path to understanding.

This is where we are right now. It’s a racial stalemate we’ve been stuck in for years. Contrary to the claims of some of my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own.But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in my faith in God and my faith in the American people — that working together we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice is we are to continue on the path of a more perfect union.

For the African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of our past without becoming victims of our past. It means continuing to insist on a full measure of justice in every aspect of American life.But it also means binding our particular grievances — for better health care, and better schools, and better jobs – to the larger aspirations of all Americans — the white woman struggling to break the glass ceiling, the white man whose been laid off, the immigrant trying to feed his family. And it means taking full responsibility for own lives — by demanding more from our fathers, and spending more time with our children, and reading to them, and teaching them that while they may face challenges and discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny.Ironically, this quintessentially American — and yes, conservative — notion of self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright’s sermons. But what my former pastor too often failed to understand is that embarking on a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change.

The profound mistake of Reverend Wright’s sermons is not that he spoke about racism in our society. It’s thathe spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress has been made; as if this country — a country that has made it possible for one of his own members to run for the highest office in the land and build a coalition of white and black; Latino and Asian, rich and poor, young and old — is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past.But what we know — what we have seen — is that America can change. That is true genius of this nation.What we have already achieved gives us hope — the audacity to hope — for what we can and must achieve tomorrow.

In the white community, the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination — and current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in the past — are real and must be addressed. Not just with words, but with deeds — by investing in our schools and our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations. It requires all Americans to realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare, and education of black and brown and white children will ultimately help all of America prosper.

In the end, then, what is called for is nothing more, and nothing less, than what all the world’s great religions demand — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Let us be our brother’s keeper,Scripture tells us. Let us be our sister’s keeper. Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let our politics reflect that spirit as well.

For we have a choice in this country. We can accept a politics that breeds division, and conflict, and cynicism.We can tackle race only as spectacle — as we did in the O.J. trial — or in the wake of tragedy, as we did in the aftermath of Katrina, or as fodder for the nightly news. We can play Reverend Wright’s sermons on everychannel, every day and talk about them from now until the election, and make the only question in this campaign whether or not the American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as evidence that she’s playing the race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to John McCain in the general election regardless of his policies.We can do that.But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we’ll be talking about some other distraction. And then another one. And then another one. And nothing will change.

That is one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, “Not this time.” This time we want to talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the future of black children and white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and Native American children. This time we want to reject the cynicism that tells us that these kids can’t learn; that those kids who don’t look like us are somebody else’s problem. The children of America are not those kids, they are our kids, and we will not let them fall behind in a 21st-century economy. Not this time.

This time we want to talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care; who don’t have the power on their own to overcome the special interests in Washington, but who can take them on if we do it together.

This time we want to talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for men and women of every race, and the homes for sale that once belonged to Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of life. This time we want to talk about the fact that the real problem is not that someone who doesn’t look like you might take your job; it’s that the corporation you work for will ship it overseas for nothing more than a profit.

This time we want to talk about the men and women of every color and creed who serve together, and fight together, and bleed together under the same proud flag. We want to talk about how to bring them home from a war that never should’ve been authorized and never should’ve been waged, and we want to talk about how we’ll show our patriotism by caring for them, and their families, and giving them the benefits they have earned.

I would not be running for president if I didn’t believe with all my heart that this is what the vast majority of Americans want for this country. This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation — the young people whose attitudes and beliefs and openness to change have already made history in this election.

There is one story in particularly that I’d like to leave you with today — a story I told when I had the great honor of speaking on Dr. King’s birthday at his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta.There is a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for our campaign in Florence,South Carolina. She had been working to organize a mostly African-American community since the beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there.And Ashley said that when she was nine years old, her mother got cancer. And because she had to miss days of work, she was let go and lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and that’s when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom.She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to eat more than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches. Because that was the cheapest way to eat.She did this for a year until her mom got better, and she told everyone at the roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the millions of other children in the country who want and need to help their parents too.

Now Ashley might have made a different choice. Perhaps somebody told her along the way that the source of her mother’s problems were blacks who were on welfare and too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally. But she didn’t. She sought out allies in her fight against injustice.Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and then goes around the room and asks everyone else why they’re supporting the campaign. They all have different stories and reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. And finally they come to this elderly black man who’s been sitting there quietly the entire time. And Ashley asks him why he’s there. And he does not bring up a specific issue. He does not say health care or the economy. He does not say education or the war. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply says to everyone in the room, “I am here because of Ashley.”

“I’m here because of Ashley.” By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl andthat old black man is not enough. It is not enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to our children.But it is where we start. It is where our union grows stronger. And as so many generations have come to realize over the course of the 221 years since a band of patriots signed that document in Philadelphia, that is where the perfection begins.

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Obama Democratic National Convention

JULY 27, 2004

On behalf of the great state of Illinois, [the crowd applauds, and Obama’s eyes sparkle with pride at speaking the name of his home state] crossroads  of a nation [pause], Land of Lin- coln, let me express my deepest gratitude for the privilege of addressing this convention. [He reaches out to the audience with open hands, conveying his gratitude.]
Tonight is a particular honor for me because, let’s face it, my presence on this stage is pretty unlikely. [Obama places his hand over his heart. His intonation underscores the irony of the circumstances.] My father was a foreign student, born and raised in a small village in Kenya. He grew up herding goats, went to school in a tin-roof shack. His father, my grandfather, was a cook, a domestic servant to the British. [He pinches the fingers of his right hand, under- scoring his point.]
But my grandfather had larger dreams for his son. [Obama stretches his palms upwards, as if measuring the enor- mity of the dreams.] Through hard work and perseverance my father got a scholarship to study in a magical place: America [italics added for emphasis], that shone as a beacon of freedom and opportunity to so many who had come before. [His inflection conveys patriotic pride and generates applause.]
While studying here, my father met my mother. She was born in a town on the other side of the world, in Kansas. [Obama gestures with a hand off in a direction, indicating far, far away. He flashes a bright smile toward the part of the crowd that cheers upon hearing  ”Kansas” and waves to them in a ten- der gesture.]  Her  father worked on oil rigs and farms

through most of the Depression. The day after Pearl Har- bor my grandfather signed up for duty, joined Patton’s army, marched across Europe. Back home, my grand- mother raised a baby and [emphasis] went to work on a bomber assembly line. After the war, they studied on the GI Bill, bought a house through FHA, and later moved west, all the way to Hawaii, in search of opportunity.
And they, too, had big dreams for their daughter, a com- mon dream, born of two continents. My parents shared not only an improbable love; they shared an abiding faith in the possibilities of this nation. [Obama  speaks the words with pride and reverence; his hand extended to the audience, signi- fying shared awe in all the United States has to give.]
They  would give me an African name, Barack, or “blessed,”  [he touches his hand over his heart] believing that in a tolerant [emphasis] America [he pinches the fingers of his right hand] your name is no barrier to success. [Applause.] They imagined me going to the best schools in the land, even though they weren’t rich, because in a generous America you don’t have to be rich [he raises a palm to the crowd, a lit- tle stop sign, as if to halt any notion that richness is a precursor to success] to achieve your potential. [Applause.] They are both passed away now. Yet, I know that, on this night, they look down on me with great pride.
I stand here today, grateful for the diversity of my her- itage, aware that my parents’ dreams live on in my two pre- cious daughters. [Sincerity rings in his tone.] I stand here knowing that my story is part of the larger American story [he stretches a hand to the audience, reaching out to them], that I owe a debt to all of those who came before me, and that,

in no other country on earth is my story even possible. [He pinches his fingers with those words, his voice bursting with pride. He pauses as some audience members rise in ovation.]
Tonight, we gather to affirm the greatness of our nation, not because of the height of our skyscrapers, or the power of our military, or the size of our economy. Our pride is based on a very simple premise, summed up in a declara- tion made over two hundred years ago, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, [he amplifies his voice slightly, speaking the patriotic words with care and curls his right fin- gers into a C, motioning in front of him as if setting the words on air] that all men are created equal. [Applause.] That they are endowed by their Creator  with certain inalienable rights. That among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”
That [emphasis] is the true genius of America [applause], a faith in simple dreams, an insistence on small miracles. That we can tuck in our children at night and know they are fed and clothed and safe from harm. That we can say what we think, write what we think, without hearing a sud- den knock on the door. [Obama knocks a balled fist on an imaginary door.] That we can have an idea and start our own business without paying a bribe. That we can partici- pate in the political process without fear of retribution, and that our votes will be counted—at least, most of the time. [He allows his tone to fall flat, disapproving, signaling a wry reference to the disputed 2000 U.S. presidential election results. The audience responds with jeers, sharing his disapproval.]
This year, in this election, we are called to reaffirm our values and our commitments, to hold them against a hard

reality, and see how we are measuring up to the legacy of our forbearers, and the promise of future generations. And fellow Americans—Democrats, Republicans, Indepen- dents—I say to you tonight: we have more work to do. [Obama stresses the words, his tone issuing the statement as a challenge. More applause.] More work to do for the workers I met in Galesburg, Illinois, who are losing their union jobs at the Maytag plant that’s moving to Mexico, and now are having to compete with their own children for jobs that pay seven bucks an hour. [His tone rings with disapproval.] More to do for the father that I met who was losing his job and choking back the tears, wondering how he would pay
$4,500 a month for the drugs his son needs without the health benefits that he counted on. [His tone conveys great empathy.] More to do for the young woman in East St. Louis, and thousands more like her, who has the grades, has the drive, has the will [he emphasizes the words and his slight pauses add power to the delivery], but doesn’t have the money to go to college.
Now, don’t get me wrong. The people I meet in small towns and big cities, in diners and office parks, they don’t expect government to solve all their problems. They know they have to work hard to get ahead, and they want to. [Obama stresses the words  as he pinches his fingers to further accentuate his statement.] Go into the collar counties around Chicago, and people will tell you they don’t want their tax money wasted by a welfare agency or by the Pentagon. [His amplification  of these last three words makes a negative refer- ence to the Iraq War, drawing reaction from the audience.] Go into any inner city neighborhood, and folks will tell you

that government alone can’t teach our kids to learn. They know that parents have to teach, that children can’t achieve unless we raise their expectations [he gestures upward  as if raising a bar], and turn off the television sets and eradicate the slander that says a black youth with a book is acting white. [He wags his index finger, as if chastising someone for that belief.] They know those things. [Enthusiastic applause.] People don’t expect government to solve all their problems. [He lifts a vertical palm to the audience, as if halting the very notion.] But they sense, deep in their bones [he raises a soft fist and thumps it in air], that with just a slight change in pri- orities [he moves his right fingers as if turning a knob slightly to adjust it], we can make sure that every child in America has a decent shot at life, and that the doors of opportunity remain open to all. They know, [he pinches his fingers, under- scoring his emphasis of the words] we can do better [a brief pause], and they want that choice.
In this election, [Obama  raises his index finger in the air, raising it like a staff] we offer that choice. Our party has chosen a man to lead us who embodies the best this coun- try has to offer. [Pride rings in his tone.] And that man is John Kerry. [His tone is firm and resolute. Applause.] John Kerry understands the ideals of community, faith, and serv- ice, because they’ve defined his life. [He pinches his fingers to give each word weight.] From his heroic service in Viet- nam to his years as prosecutor and lieutenant governor, through two decades in the United States Senate, he has devoted himself to  this  country. [He turns both palms upward, as if presenting a gift or offering, underscoring his description of Kerry’s devotion and service.] Again and again,

we’ve seen him make tough choices when easier ones were available. His values and his record affirm what is best in us. [He varies his tone and amplifies his volume.]
John Kerry believes in an America where hard work is rewarded. So instead of offering tax breaks to companies shipping jobs overseas [Obama motions his hand off dismis- sively to the right], he offers them to companies creating jobs here at home. [He moves both hands to the left as if mov- ing an object to where it belongs, signifying  how much more Kerry would give to the alternative of keeping jobs at home. Applause.]
John Kerry believes in an America where all [emphasis] Americans can afford the same health coverage our politi- cians in Washington have for themselves. [Applause.] John Kerry believes in energy independence, so we aren’t held hostage to the profits of oil companies [Obama motions his hand like a stop sign] or the sabotage of foreign oil fields. [Applause.] John Kerry believes in the constitutional free- doms that have made our country the envy of the world, and he will never sacrifice our basic liberties nor use faith as a wedge to divide us. [Pause for applause.] And John Kerry believes that in a dangerous world, war must be an option sometimes [he points his index finger in the air, signi- fying the importance],  but  it  should never be the  first [emphasis] option. [Applause.]
A while back, I met a young man named Shamus in a VFW Hall in East Moline, Illinois. He was a good-looking kid, six-two, six-three, clear-eyed, with an easy smile [the texture of Obama’s tone is wistful, conveying admiration]. He told me he’d joined the marines and was heading to Iraq

the following week. As I listened to him explain why he’d enlisted, the absolute faith he had in our country and its leaders, his devotion to duty and service, I thought this young man was all that any of us might ever hope for in a child [he speaks the words with tender affection]. But then I asked myself: Are we serving Shamus as well as he’s serving us? I thought of the 900 men and women, sons and daugh- ters, husbands and wives, friends and neighbors, who won’t be returning to their own hometowns. I thought of fami- lies I had met who were struggling to get by without a loved one’s full income, or whose loved ones had returned with a limb missing or nerves shattered, but still lacked long-term health benefits because they were reservists. [Disappointment rings in his voice. Applause.] When we send our young men and women into harm’s way, we have a solemn obligation [he rests his palm over his heart] not to fudge the numbers [he raises his hand in a stop sign], or shade the truth about why they’re going, to care for their families while they’re gone [he points an index finger, emphasizing the importance], to tend to the soldiers upon their return, and to never [pause] ever [he amplifies his voice greatly] go to war without enough troops to win the war,  secure the peace, and earn the respect of the world.  [He stresses the words,  amplifying each to build to a high. Audience members rise in ovation.]
Now let me be clear. [Obama motions his index finger up in the air.] We have real enemies in the world. These ene- mies must be found. [He pinches his fingers. A slight pause gives gravity to the words.] They must be pursued [his hand gesture underscores the importance of “pursuing”], and they must be defeated. [He pinches his fingers at these words, high-

lighting their importance.] John Kerry knows this. And just as Lieutenant [emphasis] Kerry did not hesitate to risk his life to protect the men who served with him in Vietnam, President [emphasis] Kerry will not hesitate one moment [emphasis] to use our military might to keep America safe and secure. John Kerry believes [emphasis]  in America. And he knows that it’s not enough for just some of us to prosper. [He moves his index finger in the air.] For alongside our famous individualism, there’s another ingredient in the American saga. [His tone conveys a challenge beneath his words.]
A belief that we’re all connected as one people. [His tone is filled with wistful, patriotic pride.] If there’s a child on the south side of Chicago who can’t read, that matters to me [he moves his hand to his chest, stressing the heartfelt words], even if it’s not my child. [Obama  speaks the words with sincerity and evokes applause.] If there’s a senior citizen somewhere who can’t pay for their prescription drug and has to choose between medicine and the rent, that makes my life poorer, even if it’s not my grandparent. [He places his hand  tenderly over his heart and draws more applause.] If there’s an Arab American family being rounded up without benefit of an attorney or due process [he amplifies his tone], that threat- ens my [emphasis] civil liberties. [He taps a closed fist at his chest, drawing loud cheers from the audience. He pauses as applause rings on.] It is that fundamental belief—I am my brother’s keeper [he raises his volume even more, and his voice rings with moral  rightness  as he slices a hand through the air], I am my sister’s keeper [he cuts his hand through the air again, making  eye contact with the other side of the audience]—that

makes this country work. [Applause.] It’s what allows us to pursue our individual dreams, and yet still come together as one American family [his tone grows reflective.]  “E pluribus unum.” [He enunciates each word carefully, curls his right fingers into a C and motions as if placing the words on air for the audience to see, and gives a dramatic pause.] Out of many, one. [He lowers his pitch to emphasize the translation and curls his left fingers into a C, motioning again as if placing the words on air.]
Now, even as we speak, there are those who are prepar- ing to divide us, the spin masters, the negative ad peddlers who embrace the politics of anything goes. Well, I say to them tonight, there is not a liberal [emphasis] America and a conservative America [he amplifies his volume, his tone mocking the notions]—there is the United States of America. [Obama enunciates each word carefully—U-ni-ted-States-of- A-mer-i-ca—moving his fingers as if writing in cursive. Applause.] There  is not a black America  [emphasis]  and white America [emphasis] and Latino America and Asian America; there’s the United States of America. [He enunci- ates the words carefully again, giving them dramatic impact. Applause.] The pundits like to slice and dice our country into red states and blue states. [His tone mocks the practice.] Red states for Republicans, blue states for Democrats. But I’ve got news for them, too. [He raises his index finger, chas- tising the pundits.] We worship an awesome God [he stresses the words, raising his hands and amplifying his voice to signify God ’s greatness] in the blue states, and we don’t like federal agents poking around in our libraries in the red states. [He increases his cadence dramatically,  underscoring  the point.

Applause.] We coach Little League in the blue states and yes we’ve got some gay friends in the red states. [Applause.] There are patriots who opposed the war in Iraq and there are patriots who supported the war in Iraq. We are one [emphasis] people, all of us [emphasis] pledging allegiance to the stars and stripes, all of us [emphasis] defending the [pause] United States of America [He punches the words—U- ni-ted-States-of-A-mer-i-ca—scrawling his fingers as if writ- ing in cursive. Applause. The electrified audience starts chanting “Obama! Obama!”]
In the end, that’s what this election is about. Do we par- ticipate in a politics of cynicism [his voice falls flat, signal- ing disapproval] or do we participate in a politics of hope? [Obama  raises his pitch, sounding hopeful and expectant. The crowd shouts out, “Hope!” as if participating in a “call and response.”] John Kerry calls on us to hope. John Edwards calls on us to hope. I’m not talking about blind optimism here—the almost willful ignorance that thinks unemploy- ment will go away if we just don’t think about it, or the health care crisis will solve itself if we just ignore it. That’s not what I’m talking about. I’m talking about something more substantial. [Emphasis.] It’s the hope [emphasis] of slaves sitting  around  a fire singing freedom songs; the hope [emphasis] of immigrants setting out for distant shores; the hope [emphasis] of  a  young  naval  lieutenant  bravely patrolling the Mekong Delta; the hope [emphasis] of a mill worker’s son who dares to defy the odds; the hope [empha- sis] of a skinny kid [emphasis] with a funny name [he thumps his palm against his chest, indicating  he is speaking of himself] who believes that America has a place for him, too. [He

reaches open palms toward his listeners. The audience  goes wild with adulation, the applause extending  so long that Obama adds two sentences as the cheers continue.] Hope [emphasis] in the  face of difficulty. [His amplified words signify his approval  of the audience’s reaction.] Hope in the face of uncer- tainty. [He keeps his volume powerful.] The audacity of hope! [His volume rises.]
In the end, that is God’s greatest gift to us, the bedrock [emphasis] of this nation; a belief [emphasis] in things not seen; a belief [emphasis] that there are better days ahead. [Passion resonates in Obama’s voice.] I believe [emphasis] that we can give our middle class relief and provide working families with a road to opportunity. I believe [emphasis] we can provide jobs to the jobless, homes to the homeless, and reclaim young people in cities across America from vio- lence and despair. I believe [emphasis] that we have a right- eous wind in our backs and that  as we stand  on the crossroads of history, we can make the right choices, and meet  the  challenges that  face us. America!  [emphasis] Tonight! [The intensity of his tone rings like a challenge, reach- ing a crescendo.]
If you feel the same energy [emphasis] that I do, if you feel the same urgency [emphasis] that I do, if you feel the same passion [emphasis] that I do, if you feel the same hopefulness [emphasis] that I do—if we do what we must do, then I have no doubt that all across the country, from Florida to Ore- gon [he slices a hand through the air], from Washington to Maine [he slices a hand through air again, his inflections ris- ing and falling to convey the breadth of the geography, from coast to coast] the people will rise up in November, and John

Kerry will be sworn in as president, and John Edwards will be sworn in as vice president, and this country will reclaim its promise, and  out  of this  long political darkness a brighter day will come.
Thank you very much everybody. [He stretches his arm high, waving goodbye] God bless you. [The energized audi- ence rises in full ovation, with some people chanting “Obama! Obama!”] [Emphases provided.]

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Obama Inaugural Address

Listening Obama Speech (wt scripts):

This is my best way to improve my  english by listening deeply and understanding in real english.

เริ่มต้นฝึกบทสั้นๆจากที่English Central ก่อน > Inauguration Day for Obama

Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real.

วันนี้กระผมขอกล่าวกับทุกท่านว่า ความท้าทายต่างๆที่เรากำลังเผชิญอยู่นั้นมันเป็นเรื่องจริง

They are serious and they are many.


They will not be met easily or in a short span of time.


But know this, America — they will be met.


On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over fear,


unity of purpose over conflict and discord.


On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises,

ในวันนี้,เรามาที่นี่เพื่อประกาศอวสานของความขุ่นเคืองใจเล็กๆน้อยๆและคำ มั่นสัญญาอันเป็นเท็จ,

the recriminations and worn out dogmas,


that for far too long have strangled our politics.


We remain a young nation,


but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things.

แต่ตามคำกล่าวในพระคัมภีร์,มันถึงเวลาแล้วที่เราจะละเว้นเรื่องที่อ่อนหัด เสียที

The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit;


to choose our better history;


to carry forward that precious gift,


that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation:

ความคิดอันสูงส่ง,ส่งต่อไปจากรุ่นสู่รุ่น :

the God-given promise


that all are equal,


all are free,


and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness.


V. dare, invite to engage in a contest; stimulate, test one’s ability; deal with; demand that one identify himself (Military)

ncu. ค้อนฟลิคท (พบบ่อย)

1. การต่อสู้, การพิพาท : He was defeated in the conflict with his enemy.= เขาพ่ายแพ้ในการต่อสู้กับศัตรูของเขา

2. การขัดแย้งกัน(ในความคิดเห็น) : There is a conflict of opinions.= มีความคิดเห็นที่ขัดแย้งกัน

1. (grammar) สังเกต คำนี้มี preposition เฉพาะ: conflict withขัดแย้งกับ (บางสิ่ง) และ in conflict / in conflict with=ขัดแย้งกันอยู่ (กับ)

1. (trick) อย่าสับสนกับ inflict (ก่อให้เกิดความลำบาก, ปัญหา, กำหนด, ตั้ง) และอย่าสับสนกับ afflict (ทำให้เจ็บปวด, ทรมาน, ทำให้วิตกกังวล)


nu. ดิ๊สคอด (En.)

1. ความไม่ลงรอยกัน, การทะเลาะวิวาทกัน : There was discord over who should be their leader.

n. ความไม่ลงรอยกัน, ความขัดแย้ง (syn. conflict, friction)

vi. ไม่ลงรอยกัน, ขัดแย้งกัน (syn. disagree, differ)


vt. โปรเคลม (En.)

1. ประกาศ : The people proclaimed him king. ; They proclaimed the man a traitor.

1. (trick) อย่าสับสนกับ acclaim (ต้อนรับด้วยการโห่ร้องหรือร้องเรียกดัง ๆ ด้วยความปิติยินดี; nu ความรู้สึกพอใจ, ความปิติยินดี)

1. (similar) คล้าย declare, announce แต่ proclaim=ประกาศเรื่องที่มีความสำคัญต่อชาติต่อประชาชนให้ทราบ เพราะมีผลกระทบได้เสียต่อรัฐ ต่อแผ่นดิน หรืออาจต่อบุคคลประชาชนธรรมดาก็ได้ : The Government proclaimed a state of emergency.= รัฐบาลได้ประกาศภาวะฉุกเฉิน ; We proclaimed that man was a traitor.= พวกเราประกาศให้ทราบแล้วว่า ชายคนนั้นเป็นคนทรยศ


n. complaint; resentment; wrong; injustice


v. pledge, give one’s word, vow, commit oneself to a certain course of action

n. pledge, vow, declaration of intention; source of hope, basis for expectations


n. การฟ้องกลับ, การแย้งกลับ



n. system of principles; system of religious laws



adj. smothered; stifled; kept under control with difficulty


n. art or science of government; governmental principles; political actions or policies

n. วิชาการเมือง, รัฐศาสตร์, ศิลปะการปกครองโดยรัฐ (syn. foreign affairs, diplomacy); การเมือง, กิจกรรมทางการเมือง, หลักการทางการเมือง, ข้อคิดเห็นทางการเมือง (syn. campaigning, seeking nomination, electioneering); เล่ห์เหลี่ยมทางการเมือง,อุบายทางการเมือง


n. คัมภีร์ไบเบิล, คัมภีร์ของคริสตศาสนา


vt. ยืนยันใหม่


adj. เอ็นดิ๊วริง (En.)

1. คงทน, อยู่ได้นาน : We want enduring happiness.


adj. เพร้ชึ่ดซ (พบบ่อย)

1. มีค่ามาก ประเสริฐ : Life is precious.= ชีวิตมีค่ามาก

2. เป็นที่รักใคร่ : Her child is very precious to her.= ลูกเป็นที่รักใคร่เอ็นดูของหล่อน


vt. ดิเศิ้บฟ (En.)

1. สมควรจะได้รับ : He deserves a high salary.


vt. เพอซู้ (ม.ต้น)

1. ไล่ตาม ติดตาม : It is not easy to pursue a butterfly.= การติดตามผีเสื้อ ไม่ใช่ของง่ายเลย ; The police are pursuing the robbers.

2. ดำเนินต่อไป กระทำต่อไป : The reporter pursued the question and finally got his answers.= นักข่าว (ผู้สื่อข่าว) ติดตามคำถามต่อไป จนในที่สุดเขาก็ได้รับคำตอบ ; He pursued his studies in England.

3. มุ่งหา : They pursued pleasure.

1. (trick) อย่าสับสนกับ peruse (อ่าน, ตรวจดู, พิเคราะห์, พินิจพิจารณา)

1. (similar) คล้าย chaperon, escort, convoy, accompany แต่ pursue=ไล่ติดตามเพื่อจับ, ฆ่า, หรือเอาชนะ บางครั้งหมายถึงติดตามการสั่งการ การทำงานว่ามีผลคืบหน้าไปถึงไหนแล้วก็ได้ : The police pursued the escaped prisoner.= เจ้าหน้าที่ตำรวจได้ติดตามนักโทษที่หลบหนี ; They pursued the thief along the road.= พวกเขาได้ติดตามขโมยไปตามถนน

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Obama’s Inauguration Speech Part 1-2

Listening Only (No Scripts)

Obama Inaugural Address,January 20,2009

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Part 2/2

Obama’s Inauguration Speech Lessons (7 Parts)

Transcripts (English -Thai)

My fellow citizens,


I stand here today humbled by the task before us,

กระผมยืนอยู่ที่นี่ในวันนี้ ด้วยนอบน้อมต่อภารกิจที่อยู่เบื้องหน้าเรา,

grateful for the trust you have bestowed,


mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors.


I thank President Bush for his service to our nation,


as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this




Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath.




The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the

still waters of peace.



Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and

raging storms.




At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill

or vision of those

in high office,




but because We, the People, have remained faithful to the ideals of our



and true to our founding documents.


So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans.



That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood.


Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and




Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and

irresponsibility on the part of



but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the

nation for a new age.



Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered.

ผู้คนไร้บ้าน; หลายคนสูญเสียงาน; ธุรกิจมากมายต้องปิดตัวลง

Our health care is too costly;


our schools fail too many;


and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy

strengthen our

adversaries and threaten our planet.




These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics.


Less measurable but no less profound



is a sapping of confidence across our land

นั่นคือ ความเชื่อมั่นของประชาชนที่ถูกกัดกร่อนไปทั่วทุกหัวระแหง

– a nagging fear that America’s decline is inevitable,

– นั่นคือความกลัวเชิงประชดประชันที่ว่าการถดถอยของอเมริกา


and that the next generation must lower its sights.


Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real.



They are serious and they are many.

มันร้ายแรงและมันมีจำนวนมากมาย They will not be met easily or in a short

span of time.


But know this, America — they will be met.


On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over fear,


unity of purpose over conflict and discord.


On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and

false promises,



the recriminations and worn out dogmas,


that for far too long have strangled our politics.


We remain a young nation,


but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish




The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit;


to choose our better history;


to carry forward that precious gift,


that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation:

ความคิดอันสูงส่ง,ส่งต่อไปจากรุ่นสู่รุ่น :

the God-given promise นั่นคือคำมั่นสัญญาจากพระผู้เป็นเจ้าที่ว่า

that all are equal,


all are free,


and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness.


In reaffirming the greatness of our nation,


we understand that greatness is never a given.


It must be earned.


Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for less.



It has not been the path for the faint-hearted


— for those who prefer leisure over work,

— คนที่เลือกความสุขสบายมากกว่าภาระหน้าที่,

or seek only the pleasures of riches and fame.


Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the makers of things


-some celebrated but more often


men and women obscure in their labor,


-who have carried us up the long,


rugged path towards prosperityand freedom.

ไปสู่ความเจริญรุ่งเรืองและอิสรภาพ เส้นทางที่มิได้โรยด้วยกลีบกุหลาบ

For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled

across oceans in search of a new life.



For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West;

เพื่อพวกเรา,พวกเขาเหน็ดเหนื่อยในโรงงานนรก และสร้างประเทศตะวันตกขึ้นมา;

endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth.


For us, they fought and died,


in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.

ในหลายสถานที่เช่น Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.

Time and again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and

worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life.

They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual

ambitions;greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or



กระทั่งมือของพวกเขาต้องแสบร้าว จนกระทั่ง พวกเราได้มีชีวิตที่ดีขึ้น





This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous,

powerful nation on Earth. Ourworkers are no less productive than when

this crisis began. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and

services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last

year. Our capacity remainsundiminished. But our time of standing pat, of

protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions — that

time has surely passed.Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust

ourselves off,and begin again the work of remaking America.






ความสามารถของพวกเรายังคงไม่ได้ลดลงไป    แต่ช่วงเวลาที่หยุดนิ่งของพวกเรา





For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. The state of the

economy calls for action,bold and swift, and we will act — not only to

create new jobs, but to lay a new foundationfor growth. We will build

the roads and bridges, the electric grids and digital lines that feedour

commerce and bind us  together. We will restore science to its rightful

place, and wield technology’s wonders to raise health care’s quality

and lower its cost. We will harness thesun and the winds and the soil to

fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools

and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age. All this

we cando. All this we will do.




เติบโตเราจะสร้างถนนและสะพาน, ระบบไฟฟ้าและสายเชื่อมต่อดิจิตอล

ที่ส่งเสริมการค้าของเราและ รวมเราเข้าไว้ด้วยกัน





ของเราเพื่อที่จะตอบสนองต่อความต้องการของยุคใหม่ ทั้งหมดนี้พวกเราทำได้


Now, there are some who question the scale of our ambitions — who

suggest that oursystem cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their

memories are short. For they have forgotten what this country has

already done; what free men and women can achieve when imagination is

joined to common purpose,and necessity to courage.






ประสงค์ร่วมกันและ สิ่งจำเป็นสำหรับความกล้าหาญ

What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted

beneath them— that thestale political arguments that have consumed us

for so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether

our government is too big or too small, but whether it works —whether it

helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a

retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move

forward. Where the answer is no,programs will end. And those of us who

manage the public’s dollars will be held to account— to spend wisely,

reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day — becauseonly

then can we restore the vital trust between a people and their




อีกแล้ว  คำถามที่เราถามในวันนี้ไม่ใช่ว่ารัฐบาลของเราใหญ่หรือเล็กเกินไป,



เกียรติได้หรือเปล่า เมื่อคำตอบคือได้,เราตั้งใจที่จะเดินไปข้างหน้า






Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good

or ill. Its power togenerate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched, but

this crisis has reminded us thatwithout a watchful eye, the market can

spin out of control — and that a nation cannotprosper long when it

favors only the prosperous. The success of our economy has

alwaysdepended not just on the size of our Gross Domestic Product, but

on the reach of ourprosperity; on the ability to extend opportunity to

every willing heart —not out of charity, butbecause it is the surest

route to our common good.













As for our common defense, we rejectas false

the choice between our safety and our ideals.



Our Founding Fathers, faced with perils we can scarcely imagine,

drafted a charter toassure the rule of law and the rights of man, a

charter expanded by the blood of generations. Those ideals still light

the world,and we will not give them up for expedience’ssake. And so to

all other peoples and governments who are watching today, from

thegrandest capitals to the small village where my father was born: know

that America is afriend of each nation and every man, woman, and child

who seeks a future of peace and dignity, and we are ready to lead once






อย่างกว้างขวาง อุดมคติ เหล่านั้นยังคงสร้างความสว่างไสวให้กับโลกนี้









Recall that earlier generations faced down fascism and communism not

just with missiles and tanks, but with sturdy alliances and enduring

convictions. They understood that ourpower alone cannot protect us,nor

does it entitle us to do as we please. Instead, they knewthat our power

grows through its prudent use; our security emanates from the justness

of our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of

humility and restraint.










We are the keepers of this legacy. Guided by these principles once

more, we can meetthose new threats that demand even greater effort —

even greater cooperation and understanding between nations. We will

begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people, andforge a hard-earned

peace in Afghanistan. With old friends and former foes, we will work

tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the specter of a

warming planet. We willnot apologize for our way of life, nor will we

waver in its defense, and for those who seek to advance their aims by

inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to you now thatour

spirit is stronger and cannot be broken; you cannot outlast us, and we

will defeat you














ทำลายลง; คุณจะไม่ชนะพวกเรา, และพวกเราจะเอาชนะคุณ

For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a

weakness. We are a nation ofChristians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus —

and non-believers. We are shaped by every language and culture,drawn

from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter

swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter

stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old

hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve;

that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal

itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of





ศาสนา เราถูกสร้าง




ช่วงเวลาแห่ง ความมืดมิดด้วยความเข้มแข็งขึ้น






To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual

interest and mutual respect. To in a new era of peace.those leaders

around the globe who seek to sow conflict, or blame their society’s ills

on the West —know that your people will judge you on what youcan build,

not what you destroy. To those who cling to power through corruption

and deceit and the silencing of dissent, know that you are on the wrong

side of history; but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to

unclench your fist.


ประโยชน์ของทั้งสองฝ่าย และการเคารพซึ่งกันและกัน



คุณจะตัดสินคุณที่สิ่ง ที่คุณสร้าง,ไม่ใช่สิ่งที่คุณทำลาย

ถึงผู้นำที่เกาะติดอยู่กับ อำนาจด้วยการคอรัปชั่นและการหลอกลวง


; แต่พวกเราจะยื่นมือออก ไปช่วยเหลือถ้าคุณปารถนาที่จะแบมือออกมา

To the people of poor nations, we pledge to work alongside you to

make your farms flourish and let clean waters flow; to nourish starved

bodies and feed hungry minds. And to those nations like ours that enjoy

relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to

suffering outside our borders; nor can we with it.










โลกได้เปลี่ยนไปแล้ว,และรวมจะต้องเปลี่ยน ตามมันไป

As we consider the road that unfolds before us, we remember with

humble gratitude those brave Americans who, at this very hour, patrol

far-off deserts and distant mountains. They have something to tell us,

just as the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington whisper through the ages.

We honor them not only because they are guardians of our liberty, but

because they embody the spirit of service; a willingness to find meaning

in something greater than themselves. And yet, at this moment — a

moment that will define a generation — it is precisely this spirit that

must inhabit us all.


พวกเราระลึกถึงด้วยความกตัญญูอย่างอ่อนน้อมต่อ ชาวอเมริกัน







ยิ่งใหญ่กว่าตัวพวกเขาเอง และ ,ณ.ขณะนี้–ขณะที่สิ่งนั้นจะ


For as much as government can do and must do, it is ultimately the

faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation

relies. It is the kindness to take in a stranger when the levees break,

the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a

friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours. It is the

firefighter’s courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke,but also a

parent’s willingness to nurture achild, that finally decides our fate.










Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them

may be new. Butthose values upon which our success depends — honesty and

hard work, courage and fairplay, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and

patriotism — these things are old. These things aretrue. They have been

the quiet,force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded

then is a return to these truths. What is required of us now is a new

era of responsibility — arecognition, on the part of every American,

that we have duties to ourselves, our nation,and the world, duties that

we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in the

knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining

of our character, than giving our all to a difficult task.









สิ่งที่ต้องใช้ในขณะนั้นกลายมาเป็นความจริงเหล่านี้ สิ่งที่ต้องการ








This is the price and the promise of citizenship.


This is the source of our confidence— the knowledge that God calls on

us to shape an uncertain destiny.



This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed — why men and women

and children of every race and every faith can join in celebration

across this magnificent mall, and why a man whose father less than sixty

years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now

stand before you to take a most sacred oath.









So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far

we have traveled. In the year of America’s birth, in the coldest of

months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the

shores of an icy river. The capital was abandoned. The enemy

wasadvancing. The snow was stained shores of an icy river. The capital

was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained  with

blood. At a moment when the outcomeof our revolution was most in doubt,

the father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people:


เดินทางมาไกลเพียงใด ในปีที่



เป็น้ำแข็ง  เมืองหลวงแตกแล้ว



สุด,บิดาของชาติของพวกเรา ได้สั่งให้นำคำพูดเหล่านี้ไปอ่านให้ประชาชนฟัง:

“Let it be told to the future world…that in the depth of winter,

when nothing but hope and virtue could survive … that the city and the

country, alarmed at one common danger, cameforth to meet [it].”





America. In the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our

hardship, let usremember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let

us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come.

Let it be said by our children’s children that when we were tested we

refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we

falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God’s grace upon us, we

carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to

future generations.



พวกเรานี้,ขอให้พวกเราจดจำ คำพูดที่เป็นอมตะเหล่านี้






; และด้วยสายตาที่จดจ้องอยู่ที่ขอบฟ้า



Thank you. God bless you. And God bless the United States of America.

ขอบคุณครับ  ขอพระเจ้าได้โปรดประทานพรให้ท่าน


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English By Musics

> เรียนอังกฤษจากเพลง กับ อ.นิรุธ

> วลีละเพลง (A Phrase a Song)

บทเรียนภาษาอังกฤษจากบีบีซีชุดนี้เลือกเพลงเพราะๆมา เปิดให้คุณผู้ฟังได้เพลิดเพลิน พร้อมกับเสนอความหมายและการใช้สำนวนที่น่าสนใจจากเพลงเหล่านั้น

> Songs – Learn English from song lyrics

>For Music Lovers

> Siam Zone : เพลง : เนื้อเพลง Without You – Mariah Carey

> เรียนภาษาอังกฤษผ่านเพลง โดย.. Andrew Biggs :: When You’re Gone :




We are the world, we are the children

We are the ones who make a brighter day so let’s start giving (Michael Jackson)

There’s a choice we’re making we’re saving our own lives (Diana Ross)

It’s true we’ll make a better day just you and me (Michael Jackson/Diana Ross)

Well, send’em you your heart so they know that someone cares (Dionne Warwick)

And their lives will be stronger and free (Dionne Warwick/Willie Nelson)

As God has shown us by turning stone to bread (Willie Nelson)

And so we all must lend a helping hand (Al Jurreau)


We are the world, we are the children (Bruce Springsteen)

We are the ones who make a brighter day so let’s start giving (Kenny Loggins)

There’s a choice we’re making we’re saving our own lives (Steve Perry from Journey)

It’s true we’ll make a better day just you and me (Daryl Hall)

When you’re down and out there seems no hope at all (Michael Jackson)

But if you just believe there’s no way we can fall (Huey from Huey Lewis and the News)

Well, well, well, let’s realize that a change can only come (Cyndi Lauper)

When we (Kim Carnes)

stand together as one (Kim Carnes/Cyndi Lauper/Huey Lewis)



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English by Movies

การฝึกภาษาอังกฤษจากภาพยนต์ แตกต่างจากการดูหนังฝรั่ง ตรงที่การดูหนังเราได้ความบันเทิงแต่ไม่ได้เรียนภาษาเพราะภาษาพุดจะเร็วมาก จนไม่สามารถจับใจความได้เลย แม้จะดู Subtitle ก็เรียนได้ผลน้อยมาก

แต่การฝึกเรียนภาษาจากหนังฝรั่ง ต้องเลือกหนังที่มีคนนำบทพูดมาอธิบาย(ค้นได้จากกูเกิล) ควรเลือกดูหนัง(เพื่อเรียนภาษา)เพียงตอนสั้นๆที่สนุกสนานและดูซ้ำๆจนจับคำ พูดได้


1 ดูครั้งแรก  มี Subtitles ไทย เพื่อให้เข้าใจเรื่องทั้งหมด

2 ดูครั้งที่ 2  เปิด ฉพาะ English Subtitles

3 เลือกดูซ้ำๆ หลายๆครั้ง ตอนสั้นๆที่เป็นบทเรียน ซึ่งมีคำอธิบายประกอบ ตัวอย่างที่ดี ดูได้ จาก Live ABC

Every scene of the movie has a lesson set that includes: Text of the script, a Vocabulary Lesson, 2 or more Mini-Story Lessons (including some Point of View Lessons), and Audio from the scene. Some scenes also have Commentaries.

By using all the lessons, you understand all of an American movie. Also, you learn a lot of slang & idioms from the movie– the kind used everyday by Americans. But you don’t have to wait for our lessons. You can use this same method yourself, with any movie. Movies are a great way to learn– but you must use them correctly.

Most English students don’t use movies correctly. They rent a lot of American movies, watch them, return them, and then rent more. They may understand the basic story of each movie, but they don’t improve their English.

Here’s a better method for learning with movies:

1. Rent or buy ONE movie

2. Watch all of it, with subtitles in your own language

3. Next, watch only one scene of the movie (a scene is usually 2-4 minutes long). Use ENGLISH subtitles.

4. Rewind. Watch the same scene again. This time, pause for every sentence. Write down phrases/words you don’t understand.

5. Use your dictionary to learn these new words. Search the internet for strange phrases (probably slang or idioms).

6. Watch the scene again at normal speed– 2-3 times. Turn the subtitles OFF. Try to hear and understand the new phrases.

7. Watch the scene again– 2-3 times. Pause after every sentence, then say the sentence yourself. Don’t just “say” it. Copy the actor! Try to sound and move exactly like them. Copy their emotion. Copy their face movements. Copy their voice. This will improve your pronunciation.

Using this method, you can probably learn 1-3 scenes per week. Don’t go too fast. Learn deeply. Repeat steps 3-7 everyday. If a scene is difficult, you can do this again and again for several days. Its important to learn every scene very deeply.

It may feel slow, but when you finally finish a whole movie, your English is fantastically better! Use this method, it is very powerful


Suggested Links for Learn English from Movies:

> เรียนอังกฤษจากหนังรางวัล โดย คนเมืองแปล

> เรียนอังกฤษจากหนัง จาก รายการภาษาหนัง @

> Learning English Through Movies @

> Learn english from the movies

Yet, you can see some friends, who watch thousand of hollywood movie, do not speak any words!! Right, the thing is you don’t just watch it but you have to watch by learning purpose to create more useful entertainment.

The steps may annoy your emotion but if you want to learn English you better follow below steps. Otherwise, you may lost your time and effort without nothing. There are three easy steps to follow

1. Buy soundtrack movie (of course!) and watch it with the subtitle on at the first time. Your eyes and ears should work equally at this stage. Try to understand the theme and the main idea of the movie.

2. Watch it again, still with subtitle on, but now try to minimize the use of your eyes on the subtitle. Listen as much as possible and look at the subtitle only when you really do not understand. Skip all small detail at the first time and slowly increase the amount of learning by decreasing the number of time you stop the movie.

3. Watch it without subtitle. It sounds tough but believe me, after enough practice at the first two steps, you will find it easier to watch the movie in pure English.

You may need to spend sometime to pass the first two steps. Do not reach the last step to early because it can greatly discourage you. However, if you reach it when you are ready you may never imagined that english is such a piece of cake for you.

Source : Effortless English by AJ Hoge


West Side Story

Related Links:


Cats the Musical

Related Links:


The Sound of Music

Related Links:


Posted in >1 English by Movies | Tagged | 2 Comments

The Life of The Buddha

” The Life of The Buddha ” พุทธประวัติ
Prepared By : Budhi ‘wake up’ (โพธิ)
Source from:จากคำบรรยายประกอบสารคดี ของ BBC “ The Life of The Buddha ”

Five hundred years before Christ a young prince set out on a journey.
500 ปีก่อนคริสตกาล เจ้าชายองค์หนึ่งเสด็จออกเดินทาง
He would travel through pain and suffering to reach nirvana
– the everlasting bliss we all dream of.

” Symbol of peace Symbol of compassion,symbol of non-violence.”
“ สัญญาลักษณ์ของความสงบ สัญญาลักษณ์ของความเมตตา สัญญาลักษณ์ของความไม่รุนแรง ”

He was the Buddha.
พระองค์ คือ พระพุทธเจ้า

He grew up in a palace surrounded by luxury.
In his teens his privilege afforded him every indulgence
But he gave all this up to gain ultimate wisdom.แต่ก็ทรงสละสิ้นเพื่อปัญญาอันสูงสุด
He would travel the darkest corridors of his mind to come face to face with the devil inside him.
พระองค์จะผ่านมุมมืดที่สุดในจิตใจ เพื่อเผชิญกับความชั่วร้ายภายในกายตน
He founded the first world religion,
ทรงสร้างศาสนา แรกของโลก
followed today by over 400 million people
ที่ทุกวันนี้มีผู้นับถือกว่า 400 ล้านคน
– a religion where meditation is used to reach a state of complete peace and happiness.
ศาสนาที่ใช้การทำสมาธิ เพื่อเข้าถึงความสุขสงบอย่างแท้จริง

” Our own potential our own effort to know the ultimate reality.”
“ ศักยภาพของเราเอง ความพยายามของเราเองเพื่อรับรู้ความเป็นจริง ”
And the events of his life make up one of the greatest stories ever told
– and the Buddha the world’s most enduring icon.
และพระพุทธเจ้าคือ พระผู้เป็นเจ้าที่อมตะที่สุดในโลก

“ The Life of The Buddha ”

Two and a half thousand years after|his death the Buddha’s message lives on.
2500 ปีหลังจากปรินิพพาน คำสั่งสอนของพระพุทธเจ้ายังคงอยู่
The Dalai Lama
– the spiritual figurehead of Tibetan Buddhism
– passes on the teachings of the Buddha
– continuing a practice that began the day he died.

Buddhism has been adopted by many different cultures and has many interpretations.
หลากหลายวัฒนธรรมที่นับถือศาสนาพุทธ และมีการตีความที่ต่างออกไป
The Buddha’s teachings of a higher mental calm
and clarity are seen by some as a religion,others a philosophy, even a psychotherapy.

ท่านดะไลลามะ กล่าว่า
” Some people describe Buddhism is not a religion but Buddhism is science of mind.”
” บางคนเห็นว่าศาสนาพุทธมิใช่ศาสนา แต่เป็นศาสตร์ทางจิต ”

The Buddha’s message is as relevant today as it was two and a half thousand years ago.
คำสอนของพระพุทธเจ้ายังตรงประเด็นอยู่ถึงทุกวันนี้ แม้จะผ่านมาแล้ว 2500 ปี

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford)

” What has made Buddhism so popular is that it is insightful|and largely true that the Buddha discovered immensely important things.”
” นั่นคือสิ่งที่ทำให้พุทธสาสนาเป็นที่ยอมรับ เป็นสิ่งที่เข้าใจได้อย่างท่องแท้ ที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงค้นพบสิ่งที่สำคัญยิ่ง ”

Unlike other religions, Buddhism,which centers on the mind,has no supreme God.
สิ่งที่แตกต่างไปจากศาสนาอื่นๆ พุทธศาสนามีศูนย์กลางอยู่ที่จิตใจ ไม่มีพระเจ้า
Instead a great teacher the Buddha or the Awakened One.
แต่มีศาสดา คือพระพุทธเจ้า หรือผู้รู้ ผู้ตื่น

Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont)

” It seems very almost intuitive to an age in which psychology becomes for many people|an alternative to religion it’s the means it’s a therapeutic means to dealing with the problems of life and so it seems very accessible to any people.”
” มันเกือบเป็นการหยั่งรู้ในยุคที่จิตวิทยากลายเป็นทางเลือกแทน ศาสนาสำหรับคนจำนวนมาก มันเป็นวิธีการบำบัด แก้ปัญหาของชีวิต และดูจะเข้าถึงคนได้จำนวนมาก ”

There are many representations|of the Buddha
and Buddhists all have their own picture in their minds of what he was like.

ท่านดะไลลามะ กล่าวว่า
” Some kind of vibration of complete peace,non-violence I think that must be there.”
” ความสงบอันสมบูรณ์แบบ ความไม่รุนแรง อาตมาคิดว่าอยู่ที่นั่น ”

Until little more than one hundred years ago the life of the Buddha remained unknown to the West By the time the British colonized India
– the country of the Buddha’s birth
– Buddhism had all but died out,destroyed by Hindu kings and Muslim invaders.
จนกระทั่งเมื่อร้อยกว่าปีมานี้ พุทธประวัติยังไม่เป็นสิ่งล่วงรู้ของตะวันตก

The origins and the sites of the Buddha’s life became lost to everyone.
It wasn’t until British colonial archaeologists
began to explore Northern India that their discoveries
began to root the Buddha’s life in historical fact.
การค้นพบของเขาเริ่มเผยถึงพุทธประวัติ ในแง่ความจริงทางประวัติศาสตร์

” In the 1860’s,a series of archaeologists began to try and identify the sites associated with the life of the Buddha.”
” ในยุค 1860 นักโบราณคดีชุดหนึ่ง ได้พยายามระบุสถานที่ซึ่งเกี่ยวข้องกับพุทธประวัติ ตลอดชีวิตของพระองค์ ”

By the 1890’s many of these sites had been successfully identified within the Ganges area,
ภายในยุค 1890 สถานที่หลายแห่งมีการระบุชัดเจน ภายในบริเวณแม่น้ำคงคา
but that time two of the great sites|connected with Buddhism were still missing,
แต่ในตอนนั้นสถานที่สำคัญสองแห่ง ทางพุทธศาสนายังคงสาปสูญ
the site of Lumbini, where the Buddha had actually been born,
and the site of Kapilavastu which was the childhood home of the Buddha.

The area to the north of the Ganges was less well known,
บริเวณตอนเหนือของแม่น้ำคงคา ไม่ค่อยเป็นที่รู้จัก
partly because of the very thick jungle there,tigers as well as malaria.
ส่วนหนึ่งเพราะที่นั่นเป็นป่าหนาทึบ เต็มไปด้วยเสือและไข้มาเลเรีย
It took a breakthrough discovery to unlock the story of the Buddha’s origins.
เป็นการค้นพบครั้งสำคัญ ที่เผยเรื่องราวกำเนิดของพระพุทธเจ้า
In a remote village across the border in Nepal a pillar was discovered.
ในหมู่บ้านห่างไกลแห่งหนึ่ง ข้ามพรหมแดนเนปาลมีการค้น

A British expedition was sent out|to decipher its inscription.
พบเสาหิน นักสำรวจอังกฤษผู้หนึ่งถูกส่งไปแปลคำจารึก
The script is the early Brami script
and the language is|a local vernacular language of Northern India and indeed the inscription itself depicts
และเป็นภาษาท้องถิ่นของอินเดียตอนเหนือ และข้อความนั้นระบุว่า…ที่นี่คือ

that this is where the Buddha,the enlightened one was born.

This was the first piece of evidence to suggest that the Buddha was not just a legendary figure – he actually existed.
นี่เป็นหลักฐานชิ้นแรกที่ระบุว่า พระพุทธเจ้ามิใช่แค่เรื่องในตำนาน พระองค์มีอยู่จริง

Ancient Buddhist texts|had named the Buddha’s birthplace as Lumbini
and now the archaeologists had it located on the map.
Now they tried to find the Buddha’s childhood home
– an ancient city named in the texts as – Kapilavastu.
คัมภีร์พุทธศาสนาโปราณอ้างสถานที่ประสูติของท่านว่าเป็น สวนลุมพินี
และตอนนี้พวกเขาพยายามหาสถานที่ประทับวัยเยาว์ของพระองค์ เมืองโบราณที่ระบุไว้ในคัมภีร์ว่า กรุงกบิลพัสดุ์

It was apparent that it was located to the west
perhaps 10 or 15 kilometers to the west of Lumbini
and that is where the search began to intensify.
Expeditions uncovered two possible sites for Kapilavastu
– one in India the other in Nepal.
For a hundred years archaeologists have argued over them.
อาจจะห่างจากลุมพินี 10 หรือ 15 กิโลเมตร
นักสำรวจได้พบสถานที่สองแห่ง ที่อาจจะเป็นกรุงกบิลพัสดุ์
แห่งหนึ่งในอินเดีย และอีแห่งหนึ่งในเนปาล

New research by Dr Coningham|and his team
suggests the ancient city lay|at modern day Tilaurakot – in Nepal.
จนการวินิจฉัยครั้งใหม่ของ ดร.โคนิ่งแฮม และคณะ
ที่เสนอว่าเมืองโบราณนั้นคือ ทิเลาราก็อต ในเนปาลปัจจุบัน

It’s an extremely exciting site because it is so well preserved,
we conducted that a series of geo physical surveys
and we then identified a series of roads laid out and it became a clear
that the entire city in its final phrase had been laid out on a girded pattern.
มันเป็นเรื่องที่น่าตื่นเต้นมาก เพราะอนุรักษ์ไว้อย่างดี เราได้สำรวจทางธรณีวิทยาอย่างต่อเนื่อง และพบว่ามีถนนหลายสายและชัดเจนว่า ทั้งเมืองในขั้นสุดท้าย มีการวางแผนผังอย่างมีระเบียบ

At its centre lay a palace.
It is here that the Buddha’s story begins.
Two and a half thousand years ago
Northern India was divided up into Kingdoms and republics.
ตรงกลางคือ พระราชวังซึ่งพระพุทธประวัติเริ่มต้นที่นี่
2500 ปีก่อนทางตอนเหนือของอินเดีย ถูกแบ่งแยกออกเป็นอาณาจักร และสาธารณรัฐ

The Buddha’s father – Sudhodana
– was the elected chieftain|of the Shakya tribe.
He ruled his kingdom from his palace|near the foothills of the Himalayas.
His queen was called Maya.
พระบิดาของพระพุทธเจ้าคือ พระเจ้าสุทโธทนะ เป็นประมุขของศากยวงศ์
พระราชินีคือ พระนางมายา

Legend tells that on the night of the full moon she had an extraordinary dream.
It told that a special Being known as the Buddha was about to be born again on earth.
The legend goes on that Four Guardian deities of the world
carried Queen Maya up to the Himalaya mountains in her bed.
They anointed her with divine perfumes and decked her with heavenly flowers.
A white elephant with six tusks descended from heaven,carrying a lotus flower in its trunk,and entered her womb.
The Buddha would be born of Maya.

Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland)
” If one looks at this story of the Buddhist conception and compares it
to say the conception story of Jesus, where you have angels appearing.
I suppose a similar basic idea is there.
That the forces which are beyond are signaling that something great is happening.
Its said that the Buddha chose the time and the place that he would be reborn.”
Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland)กล่าวว่า
” ถ้ามีคนดูที่แนวคิดของพุทธศาสนา และเปรียบเทียบกับแนวคิดในเรื่องราวของพระเยซู
ที่มีนางฟ้าปรากฎกาย ผมคิดว่ามีแนวคิดหลักเหมือนกัน
ว่าพลังอันไกลดพ้นส่งสัญญาณว่า สิ่งที่ยิ่งใหญ่กำลังจะเกิดขึ้น
พระพุทธเจ้าทรงเลือกเวลาและสถานที่ที่พระองค์จะทรงประสูติอีกครั้ง ”

The baby boy was named Siddhartha – meaning ‘every wish fulfilled’.
เจ้าชายมีพระนามว่า สิทถัตถะหมายถึงสำเร็จตามประสงค์
But his mother fell ill after giving birth and died a few days later.
แต่พระมารดาประชวรหลังจากนั้นและสิ้นพระชนม์ 2-3 วันต่อมา
Siddharta was brought up by his aunt.

The family summoned Brahmin priestsand then a trusted palace soothsayer to predict the young prince’s future
ทางราชวงค์ได้เรียนพราหมณ์และโหรหลวง มาทำนายอนาคตของเจ้าชายน้อย
We’re told that he noticed the auspicious signs of a great being upon Siddhartha’s body,
พวกเขาสังเกต เห็นสัญญาลักษณ์อันยิ่งใหญ่ บนร่างกายของเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะ
including the mark of a wheel upon his feet.
It’s said that the Buddha was born with certain marks on his body the so called 32 marks of a great person.
กล่าวกันว่า พระพุทธเจ้าประสูติพร้อมสัญลักษณ์พิเศษบนร่างกาย 32 ประการ ของบุรุษผู้ยิ่งใหญ่
They are seen as appearing on the body of two kinds of people.
ที่จะปรากฏบนร่างกายของบุคคล 2 ประเภท
One who will become the Buddha and one who will become a world Emperor.
หนึ่งคือผู้จะเป็นจักรพรรดิ์ครองโลก อีกหนึ่งคือ ผู้ที่จะเป็นผู้นำทางศาสนา คือศาสดาเอกของโลก

His father was quite keen on the idea that his son would become|a great political leader.
So this is why it is said that|he cosseted his son,to prevent him seeing things which|might send him in a religious direction.
นี่จึงเป็นเหตุผลที่พระองค์พะเน้าพะนอโอรส เพื่อไม่ให้เห็นสิ่งที่จะนำไปในทางศาสนา

Everyone knew the signs meant Siddharta|was exceptional, especially the King.
ทุกคนรู้ว่าเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะทรงเป็นบุคคลพิเศษ โดยเฉพาะกับกษัตริย์
But as he watched his inquisitive young son growing up he worried about these predictions
แต่ขระที่พระองค์เฝ้าดูพระโอรสเติบโตขึ้น พระองค์ทรงวิตกในคำทำนาย
– that one day his son would abandon|the palace and become the spiritual leader rather than stay to become|chief of the Shakyas.
ว่าวันหนึ่งพระโอรสจะสละพระราชวัง และกลายเป็นผู้นำทางศาสนามากกว่าจะเป็นประมุขของศากยวงค์

As Siddhartha grew older his father was delighted to see the boy’s exceptional ability at the princely sports of fencing, wrestling and archery.
ขณะที่เจ้าชายเติบโต พระบิดายินดีที่ได้เห็นความสามรถอันยอดเยี่ยมของพระโอรสในกีฬา ฟันดาบ มวยปล้ำและยิงธนู
But he also noticed that Siddharta|was a deeply thoughtful and curious child.
แต่พระองค์ก็สังเกตเห็นว่า เจ้าชายสิทถัตถะ เป็นเด็กที่มีความคิดลึกซึ้งและอยากรู้อยากเห็น
He appeared to be more interested in trying to understand the nature of the world around him than in military pursuits.

For the King these were|the most important skills
young Siddharta should learn|if he was to become a leader of men.
Siddhartha was expected to become
the future King|and defender of Kapilavasthu
– one of the very first cities|in Northern India.
สำหรับกษัตริย์เหล่านี้คือทักษะที่สำคัญที่สุด เจ้าชายควรเรียนรู้ถ้าพระองค์จะเป็นผู้นำของปวงชน เจ้าชายถูกคาดหวังว่าจะกลายเป็นกษัตริย์ในอนาคตและเป็นผู้ปกครองกรุงกบิลพัส ดุ์ หนึ่งในนครยุคแรกทางตอนเหนือของอินเดีย

The Palace where Siddhartha grew up|has long since crumbled away.
Its mud and wood construction have left nothing|for archaeologists to examine.
พระราชวังที่ซึ่งพระองค์เคยประทับในเยาว์วัย ได้พังทลายไปหมดสิ้น โครงไม้และโคลน ไม่เหลืออะไรให้นักโบราณคดีได้ตรวจสอบ
But more durable materials have recently|been discovered at Tilaurakot.
แต่มีวัสดุที่ทนทานกว่า ที่ได้ค้นพบเมื่อเร็วๆนี้ ที่ ทิเลาราก็อต

Prof.Robin Coningham ( Brad University) กล่าวว่า

” We cut a trench 3 meters by 3 meters and eventually We had a very clear sequence at the site
and then we began to be somewhat surprised|by identifying a material known as
painted greyware which is basically a flat bowl with black paint.
This tiny fragment has huge significance.”
” เราขุดคูขนาด 3 X 3 เมตร และในที่สุดเราก็ลำดับเหตุการณ์ได้ชัดเจน
และเราเริ่มประหลาดใจที่ได้พบวัสดุ ที่รู้จักกันว่า
เกรย์แวร์ ซึ่งเป็นอ่างแบนๆมีลายเขียนสีดำ เศษเล็กๆที่มีความสำญมาก ”

Dr Coningham believes it was made in the 5th Century BC
– at the time Siddhartha was growing up in the palace.
What we have is a centre of small industry – We are probably dealing with a settlement
that we would even hesitate to call a city today
– centered around a large courtyard belonging to the ruler.
And the majority of the population living in the agrarian hinterland.
It was this hinterland,lying beyond the city walls that fascinated Siddhartha.
ดร.โคนิ่งแฮม เชื่อว่า มันถูกสร้างขึ้นในศตวรรษที่ 5 ก่อนคริสตกาล ในยุคที่เจ้าชายสิทธัตถะทรงเจริยวัยในพระราชวัง
” สิ่งที่เราพบคือศูนย์กลางอุตสาหกรรมขนาดเล็ก เราอาจจะพบชุมชน ที่เราลังเลที่จะเรียกว่าเมืองทุกวันนี้ ตรงกลางดดยรอบคือสนามกว้างใหญ่ของประมุขและประชากรส่วนใหย่อยู่ในเขตกสิกรรม อันห่างไกลออกไป ”
เขตห่างไกลด้านหลังกำแพงเมืองนี้ ที่ประทับใจเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะ

So when at the age of nine his father allowed him out to celebrate the annual ploughing festival he eagerly participated.
เมื่อพระองค์มีพระชนม์มายุ 9 พรรษา พระบิดาให้พระองค์ไปฉลองเทสกาลไถนาประจำปี พระองค์กระตือรือร้นไปร่วมงาน
His first glimpse of reality beyond the palace walls would open a door for Siddharta to a new vision of the world
and would become the turning point of his life.
เป็นครั้งแรกที่ทรงเห็นความเป็นจริงหลังกำแพงวัง ซึ่งเป็นการเปิดประตูสู่วิสัยทัศน์ใหม่ของโลก และเป็นจุดเปลี่ยนในชีวิตของเจ้าชาย

The story recalls that he watched a farmer ploughing.
มีเรื่องเล่าขานว่า เมื่อพระองค์เห็นชาวนาไถนา

He saw the toil and effort, struggle and repetition of this back-breaking work,something he’d never seen in the palace.
ทรงเห็นความยากลำบาก ความพยายามของการทำงานที่หนักหนาสาหัส สิ่งที่ไม่เคยเห็นมาก่อนในวัง
He managed to slip away from the festivities and be alone.

This first experience of real life had a profound effect upon him.
To everyone else this was a celebration
– but to Siddhartha it symbolized something quite different.
He felt his mind leading him into a contemplative state.

He watched the plough as it cut and parted the ground and noticed a bird|eating a freshly unearthed worm.
He asked himself why living beings|have to suffer in this way.
If the farmer had not been ploughing|the bird would not have eaten the worm.
ถ้าชาวนาไม่ได้ไถนา นกก็จะไม่ได้กินหนอน
He realized that everything was connected and that all actions had consequences.
ทรงตระหนักว่าทุกอย่างเกี่ยวพันกัน และการกระทำทุกอย่างมีผลต่อเนื่อง

This simple observation would become one of the corner stones of his teachings – known as karma.
การสังเกตุเห็นครั้งนี้จะกลายเป็นหนึ่งในหลักสำคัญของคำสั่งสอน ที่รู้จักกันว่า กรรม

As Siddharta’s mind focused on these profound thoughts he slipped into a trance or jana – a mental state which would become his first step on the road to enlightenment.

Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland)
” He was sat under a tree and he was just focusing on the plough going through the earth.
And its said while doing that|he fairly Naturally went into a meditative state called a first Jana.
Which was very very joyful and happy.
And which he later uses|as part of his spiritual path.
The connection to Buddhist meditation is the focusing on something which has a calming centering effect.
Possibly also the idea of compassion for the worms being killed as the plough went through the earth.
So I suppose one would see this as just part of his rather special nature.”
Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland) กล่าวว่า
” พระองค์อยู่ใต้ต้นไม้และสนใจการไถนาบนพื้นดิน
การทำสมาธิทางพุทธศาสนา เพ่งความสนใจในสิ่งที่มีผลให้เกิดความสงบ
อาจรวมถึงความเวทนาหนอนที่ถูกฆ่าตายขระที่มี การไถนา
ผมเห็นว่าควรจะเห็นได้ว่านี่เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของธรรมชาติอันพิเศษของพระองค์ ”

The young prince’s behavior deeply unsettled the King.
Brahmanism – the religious tradition of the time
– insisted that sons should follow in the footsteps of their fathers.
ประเพณีตามศาสนาพรามหมณ์ในสมัยนั้น ยืนยันว่าพระโอรสควรปฏิบัติตามแนวทางของพระบิดา

Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont)
” One of the things that I think makes this narrative so powerful is,
again we can imagine this scene of his father trying to protect his son encountering any suffering.
Now the reason for doing this is that there has been a prophesy that
he’ll either become a universal monarch
or he’ll become a renunciant who will gain enlightenment.
His father of course wants him to become a king to follow in his footsteps.”
Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont) กล่าวว่า
” อย่าหนึ่งที่ผมคิดว่า…เรื่องเล่าที่มีความหมาย
อีกครั้งที่เราลองคิดทางด้านพระบิดา ซึ่งพยายยามปกป้องโอรสไม่ให้เจอะเจอความทุกข์ทรมาน
หรือเป็นผู้สละทุกอย่างเพื่อการตรัสรู้ พระบิดาต้องการให้โอรสเป็นกษัตริย์ตามรอยพระองค์ ”

As Siddhartha grew up
his father did all he could to tempt him|to stay inside the palace.
He tried to create a perfect and seductive world for him to live in.
As was Customary for a prince, Siddhartha was offered beautiful maidens
to entertain him with music and to pleasure him with their physical beauty.
ตามธรรมเนียมของเจ้าชาย เจ้าชายมีสตรีสวยงามมากมาย

When Siddhartha reached the age of sixteen
the King even found him a beautiful bride|- Princess Yasodhara.
Siddharta had to compete for her hand
and the King was delighted how skillfully|his son fought off the competition.
The King began to convince himself
that palace life was beginning|to suit his son at last.
But this was wishful thinking
and Siddhartha pestered his father|to allow him out of the palace.
เมื่อเจ้าชายสิทัตถะถึงวัย 16 ชันษา กษัตริย์ก็หาเจ้าสาวแสนงามมาให้คือ เจ้าหญิงยโสธรา เจ้าชายต้องต่อสู้เพื่อเจ้าหญิงและกษัตริย์พอใจที่พระโอรสเก่งกาจในการ ต่อสู้ กษัตริย์เริ่มแน่ใจว่าชีวิตในพระราชวังเหมาะสมกับพระโอรสในที่สุดแต่นี่คือ ความปรารถนาที่เหนือเหตุผล และเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะ ได้รบเร้าขอออกไปนอกพระราชวัง

Unable to refuse|his son’s wishes any longer,
the King desperately set about
clearing every eyesore|from the surrounds of the palace.
Like a Hollywood film set, the sick,|the poor and the old were all deleted
from the fantasy|presented to the young prince
เมื่อไม่สามารถปฏิเสะได้อีกต่อไป กษัตริย์สั่งเก็บทุกอย่างที่อุจจาดตาไปจากรอบพระราชวัง เหมือนฉากภาพยนต์ฮอลลีวู้ด คนป่วย คนเจ็บ และคนชรา ถูกกำจัดไปจากสายตาของเจ้าชายหนุ่ม
Despite his father’s efforts,
Siddhartha’s first taste of the|outside world would reveal stark realities.
With the naivety of a child|he set out with Chana,
his charioteer, as his guide.
The prince would make four journeys|and see four signs
– as predicted|by the palace fortune teller.
แม้นพระราชบิดาจะพยายามแล้ว การออกชมโลกภายนอกครั้งแรกของเจ้าชายก็ได้พบคว่ามเป็นจริง พระองค์เสด็จไปอย่างง่ายๆพร้อมด้วยฉันนะมหาดเล็กของพระองค์เป็นผู้นำทาง เจ้าชายได้เสด็จไป 4 ครั้งเห็นนิมิต 4 อย่างตามที่โหรหลวงได้ทำนายไว้

Early Buddhist texts place great importance|on this point in the story
as each journey would reveal to Siddhartha
an aspect of life which had been|deliberately hidden from him.
On his first trip Siddhartha|went out into the country,
away from his father’s influence.
He noticed an old man painfully making|his way through a village.
He asked Chana what was wrong with the man
and Chana explained|the process of ageing to him.
Siddhartha was alarmed
when he learnt that ageing is inescapable|and happens to us all.
คัมภีร์ทางพุทธศาสนาระยะแรก ให้ความสำคัญแก่ประเด็นนี้ว่า การเดินทางแต่ละครั้งจะเผยให้เจ้าชายสิทถัตถะ เห็นความเป็นไปของชีวิตที่ถูกซุกซ่อนไว้
ในการเดินทางครั้งแรก(นิมิตที่ หนึ่ง) เจ้าชายเข้าไปในประเทศที่พ้นจากอิทธิพลของพระบิดาพระองค์สังเกตุเห็นชายชรา เดินอย่างยากลำบากผ่านหมู่บ้านแห่งหนึ่ง ทรงถามฉันนะว่า เกิดอะไรขึ้นกับชายคนนั้น ฉันนะอธิบายว่า เขาเป็นคนชรา เจ้าชายตกใจเมื่อรู้ว่าความชราเป็นสิ่งหลีกเลี่ยงไม่ได้และเกิดขึ้นกับเรา ทุกคน

For Siddhartha,
reality was beginning to unveil|a cruel picture of the world.
– Where misfortune and suffering appeared|to dominate every aspect of life.
สำหรับเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะความจริงเริ่มเผยถึงภาพอันโหดร้ายของโลก ที่ซึ่งความโชคร้ายและทุกข์ทรมานเกิดขึ้นได้กับทุกชีวิต

The second sign was soon to follow
when Siddhartha noticed a sick man,|his features twisted with disease.
He asked Chana if anyone could become sick|and again he was shocked
when he learnt the brutal truth|that we all can.
The protective wall of fantasy around him|was beginning to crumble.
นิมิตที่ สอง ตามมาในไม่ช้า เมื่อเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะสังเกตุเห็นคนป่วย ร่างกายบิดเบี้ยวเพราะโรคภัย ทรงถามฉันนะว่าใครจะเจ็บป่วยได้บ้าง และต้องทรงตกพระทัยอีกครั้งเมื่อรู้ความจริงอันโหดร้ายว่า เกิดกับพวกเราทุกคน เกราะป้องกันพระองค์เริ่มแตกสลาย

And the further the young Prince ventured|the more of life’s horrors confronted him.
Now he saw a corpse, bound in linen,
being carried to the funeral pyre|- and the story records that Siddhartha
is appalled to discover|not only that all men are mortal,
but also that it was a Brahmin belief|that after death we are all reborn
– to suffer and die time and time again.
ตอนนี้(นิมิตที่ สาม) ทรงเห็นซากศพถุกห่อหุ้มด้วยผ้าขาวบาง ถูกนำไปยังที่เผาศพ และยังเล่าขานกันว่า เจ้าชายสิทธัตถะตกใจที่ได้พบว่าไม่เพียงแต่ทุกคนต้องตาย แต่เป็นความเชื่อทางศาสนาพราหมณ์ว่าหลังจากตายแล้ว เราทุกคนจะเกิดใหม่เพื่อทุกข์ทรมานและตายอีกครั้งแล้วครั้งเล่า

There seemed no end
and no solution to life’s miserable|and inevitable cycle.

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford)
” The Buddha’s life is an allegory|because the most important point in it is
that here is a young man|who is brought up with every luxury
and he realizes that isn’t enough|because he has a shock.
He has a shock because for the first time|he encounters old age,disease and death.

It’s not plausible to think that|growing up as an intelligent youth
he wouldn’t have known anything about it.
The point is rather to convey the tremendous impact that|coming face to face with
these fundamental facts of human existence,|has and must have upon us,
and that it’s urgent|that we do something about it.”
” พุทธประวัติเป็นการแฝงคติ เพราะประเด็นสำคัญที่สุดคือ
แต่ก็ตระหนักว่ายังไม่เพียงพอเพราะต้องตกใจที่ได้เผชิญหน้าเป็นครั้งแรกกับความชรา การเจ็บป่วยและความตาย

ประเด็นคือผลกระทบอย่างใหญ่หลวง ที่ได้เผชิญกับความจริงขั้นพื้นฐานของมนุษย์ที่ต้องเกิดขึ้น
และเป็นเรื่องเร่งด่วนที่เราต้องทำอะไรบางอย่าง ”

But it was the fourth sign that would|definitively point to Siddharta’s future
– a man wearing a simple robe|with a begging bowl before him.
Why should anyone want to give up|the pleasures of the world
to wander the countryside, begging?|Asked the prince.
Chana explained that the man had renounced|such pleasures in order to confront reality
and seek answers to this painful existence.
แต่เป็นนิมิตที่ สี่ ที่เป็นประเด็นสำคัญต่ออนาคตของเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะ ชายที่แต่งตัวมอซอพร้อมกะลาขอทาน เจ้าชายถามว่า ทำไมจึงมีคนสละความสุขทางโลกเพื่อเรร่อนไปขอทาน ฉันนะอธิบายว่า ชายผู้นั้นได้สละความสุขเช่นนั้นเพื่อเผชิญกับความจริง และหาคำตอบต่อความเป็นอยู่อันทุกข์ทรมาน

Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland)
” The account of the four signs|I see as quite an effective story way
of putting certain existential realizations|we all know we are going to get old
we all know we are going to get sick|we all know we are going to die
in our heads but its very different|to sit down on day
and realize here no is not just|other people who get old sick and die
its I’m going to get old|I’m going to get sick and I’m going to die
and I think the story accounts|are trying to portray
that moment of existential realization|where you see it for the first time
you are going to die|and you know it and you taste it.”
กล่าวว่า “ เรื่องของนิมิตทั้งสี่นี้ ผมเห็นว่าเป็นเรื่องเป็นจริงเป็นจัง คือนำเรื่องของความเป็นจริงที่ทุกคนรู้อยู่แล้วว่า เราต้องแก่ เราต้องป่วย เราต้องตาย ใส่ในสมองของเรา แต่มันต่างกันมากที่จะนั่งลงและตระหนักว่า ไม่ใช่แค่คนอื่นที่จะต้องป่วยและตาย เราเองกำลังจะแก่ กำลังจะป่วย และกำลังจะตาย และผมคิดเรื่องนี้เป็นการพยายามแสดงให้เห็นช่วงเวลาของของความเป็นจริงที่มี อยู่ที่คุณได้พบเห็นเป็นครั้งแรก คุณกำลังจะตายและคุณรู้ว่าคุณจะได้พบมัน “

When Siddartha returned to the palace|after this fourth journey
his mind was reeling|with his new understanding of the world.
The fruits and flowers around him|would rot and wither away.
Even the walls of the palace|would one day crumble.
His wife had just given|birth to a beautiful child.
But they would both one day grow old,
become ill and die. It was inevitable.
He had learnt the meaning of impermanence|and saw it in everything around him.
Siddharta knew he had to leave his family
to seek answers to the questions|that tormented him,
even though this meant|abandoning his wife and son.
Against the tradition of his family|and the Brahmin religion,
Siddhartha left home to find|his own answers to life’s suffering.
เมื่อเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะเสด็จกลับวัง หลังจากเดินทางครั้งที่ สี่ จิตใจของพระองค์กำลังทบทวนถึงความเข้าใจครั้งใหม่
ผลไม้และดอกไม้รอบตัวจะเน่าเปื่อยสลายไป แม้แต่กำแพงวังวันหนึ่งก็จะพังทลาย ชายาพระองค์เพิ่งจะให้กำเนิดพระโอรส แต่ทั้งสองวันหนึ่งก็จะแก่เฒ่าล้มป่วยและตายไปอย่างหลีกเลี่ยงไม่ได้
พระองค์ได้เรียนรู้ความหมายของความไม่แน่นอน และมองเห้นในทุกอย่างรอบตัว เจ้าชายสิทธัตถะรู้ว่าพระองค์ต้องสละครอบครัวเพื่อไปแสวงหาคำตอบต่อคำถามที่ กวนใจพระองค์ แม้จะหมายถึงต้องละทิ้งพระชายาและพระโอรส ขัดต่อประเพรีของราชตระกูลและศาสนาพราหมณ์

One story recalls
how a hypnotic mist sent|the guards to sleep
allowing him to escape with Chana,|through the Eastern Gate of the palace.
It is said that beside the river Anoma,|he removed his jewellery,
exchanged his robes for rags|and cut off his long hair.
He asked Chana to carry them|back to the palace.
Siddhartha was alone for the first time.
เรื่องราวหนึ่งเล่าว่า มีหมอกควันมาทำให้ยามหลับ พระองค์ จึงหนีไปกับฉันนะผ่านประตูตะวันออก
ริมฝั่งแม่น้ำอโนมา พระองค์ถอดเครื่องเพชรเปลี่ยนชุดเป็นจีวรและตัดผมที่ยาวออก ทรงขอให้ฉันนะนำกลับไปที่วัง เจ้าชายทรงอยู่ตามลำพังเป็นครั้งแรก

He had at last escaped|the false world of palace life
where suffering had been|swept out of sight.
Now he needed to come|face to face with reality,
if he was ever to find a solution|to the pain of existence.
Siddhartha was confronted|by suffering on a scale
he’d never seen before|when he arrived in the cities.
And within those cities people|were being thrown together,
at times there was perhaps|an increase in disease and suffering.
Some people have seen|this as a particular trigger
for the Buddha’s emphasis on suffering.
It accentuated a universal problems|that any human being in any society faces.
ในที่สุดก็ทรงหลบหนีออกจากโลกหลอกลวงในพระราชวังที่ซึ่งความทุกข์ทรมานถูก กำจัดไปให้พ้นจากสายตา ตอนนี้พระองค์ต้องเผชิญหน้ากับความจริง ถ้าพระองค์จะแสวงหาคำตอบต่อความทุกข์ของชีวิต

“ภายในเมืองเหล่านี้มีประชาชนถูกจัดให้มาอยู่รวมกัน ในตอนนั้นอาจมีโรคภัยไช้เจ็บเพิ่มข้น มีบางคนเห็นว่านี่อาจป็นตัวกระตุ้นต่อพระพุทธเจ้าให้เห็นความสำคัญในความ ทุกข์ทรมาน มันเน้นถึงปัญหาสากลที่มนุษย์ทุกคนต้องเผชิญ”

Siddhartha realized that
if he was to find an answer to the suffering surrounding him,
he would have to challenge the Brahmin religion under which everyone lived.
ก็อาจขัดกับศาสนาพราหมณ์ ที่ทุกคนนับถือ

What the Brahmins had was sacred knowledge
this sacred knowledge centered on knowing certain texts called the Vedas
ความรู้อันศักดิ์สิทธิ์นี่คือ การรู้ถึงพระเวท

the word Veda itself simply means knowledge and the implication is that
that was the only knowledge which was really worth having.
และความหมายนั้นคือ เป็นความรู้อย่างเดียวที่คุ้มค่าจริงๆ

With their sacred knowledge,
Brahmin priests oversaw every stage of life,from birth to death.

Their blessing was essential
but their knowledge could only be handed down to their sons.
The position of Brahmin families remained assured
– until a new wave of thinkers began to challenge this.
It was a time when Brahamism,early form of Hinduism was being questioned,
it was a little bit like the time of the ancient philosophers
such as Plato and Socrates in Ancient Greece.
มันคล้ายยุคปรัชญาเมธีโบราณอย่างเพลโต้ และโสเครตีสในกรีกโบราณ
People debating arguing with people and
the Buddha tried to cut a way through that.

He described the context as a welter of views a jungle of views.
As Siddhartha explored this jungle he realized that
พระองค์กล่าวถึงอรรถธิบายว่า เป็นความสับสนทางความคิด
the solution to life’s suffering needed to be available to everyone,
rather than an exclusive few – like the Brahmin tradition.

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford):

” The Buddha disagreed with the Brahmins
and he said one does not become a Brahmin
by birth one becomes a Brahmin
by living well one does not become an outcast
by birth one becomes an outcast|by living badly.
Now that’s a wonderful and important thought its like saying in our society
a true gentleman is not one who is born into a particular family
but one who behaves properly.
” พระพุทธเจ้าไม่ทรงเห็นด้วยกับพวกพราหมณ์
แต่เป็นผู้ที่มีประพฤติกรรมที่เหมาะสม ”

Siddhartha traveled further on his search into Northern India.
He was looking for an alternative way of life
that attempted to overcome the suffering he’d seen around him.
He was interested in all the new philosophies
but he wanted to go further – to reach deeper into his mind.
He now decided to focus on the technique of meditation
and sought out the leading gurus of the day.
ตอนนี้ทรงสนใจเป็นพิเศษในเทคนิคการทำสมาธิ และการเสาะแสวงหาผู้เชี่ยวชาญในยุคนั้น

” There been broadly speaking two kinds of meditation in ancient India.
Which consisted in putting yourself under various kinds of pressure
by controlling your breathing or sometimes fasting
or undergoing other forms of discomfort
and the aim is really to obtain what we call altered states of consciousness.
So they would think that they had climbed to very high plains in the universe.”
“ พูดกันกว้างๆว่า มีการทำสมาธิ 2 วิธี ในอินเดียโบราณ
ด้วยการควบคุมลมหายใจ หรือบางครั้งอดอาหารหรือการทรมานในรูปแบบต่างๆ
จุดประสงค์ก็เพื่อให้ได้สิ่งที่พวกเขาเรียกว่า สติปัฏฐาน
ดังนั้นพวกเขาจะคิดว่าพวกเขาต้องสูงมากในจักรวาล ”

” They’re not taking this literally,
its not that they think that they go five thousand feet up in the air,
so to speak but they think that there are certain planes which become more
and more abstract such things as the plane of infinity of space
and that’s followed by the plane of infinite consciousness as you got
and then the plane of infinite nothingness,
these were the sorts of things
the Buddha definitely must have learnt from his teachers.”
” พวกเขามิได้ทำจริงพวกเขาคิดว่าขึ้นไปสูง 5000 ฟุตในอากาศ
ทั้งหมดนี้เป็นสิ่งที่พระพุทธเจ้าต้องเรียนรู้จากพระอาจารย์ของพระองค์ “

It is said that Siddhartha,so excelled at mediating
that he attracted a group of five followers
and his teachers asked him to stay on and take over their schools.
But Siddhartha decided that
this practice alone was not the answer to the problem of suffering
and rebirth or reincarnation.
He set out to explore other techniques
– this time focusing on his body.
ซึ่งดึงดูดกลุ่มสาวกทั้ง ห้า(ปัจวัคคีย์)

Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland) :

” So he then goes to try another method which is harsh asceticism.
This involved things like fasting, not washing,
meditations where you hold your breath for a very long time
and its very forceful willful way.”

Prof.Peter Harvey (University of Sunderland) กล่าวว่า
” ดังนั้นพระองค์ทดลองวิธีอื่น คือการบำเพ็ญตบะ
ทำสมาธิ กลั้นหายใจเป็นเวลานาน
เป็นวิธีที่ต้องตั้งใจจริงอย่างมาก ”

Ascetics may starve and even mutilate themselves.
For them the physical body is a barrier to spiritual liberation.
By shedding their attachment to the body
they will clean the mind and liberate the soul.
การบำเพ็ญตบะ การอดอาหาร และการทำร้ายตัวเอง
สำหรับพวกเขาร่างกายเป็นอุปสรรค ต่อเสรีภาพทางจิตใจ

Siddhartha tried to achieve this state of liberation.
He fasted for so long his life hung by a thread.
ทรงอดอาหารนานเกินปี จนชีวิตแวนอยู่บนเส้นด้าย

All my limbs became like the knotted joints of withered creepers,
my buttocks like a bullocks hoof,
my protruding backbone like a string of balls,
my gaunt ribs like the crazy rafters of a tumbledown shed.
My eyes lay deep in their sockets,
their pupils sparkling like water in a deep well.
As an unripe gourd shrivels and shrinks in the hot wind,
so became my scalp.

Just as Siddhartha was about to die of starvation
a young girl saved his life by giving him a bowl of rice and milk.
He now realized that if he starved himself again
he would simply die having achieved nothing.

Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont):
” And the story says that|he is living on one grain of rice a day.
He’s practically starved himself to death
and realizes that disciplining the body through extreme self renunciation,
aestheticism inflicting pain upon the body
that doesn’t solve the problem.”
” เรื่องราวเล่าว่าพระองค์อยุ๋ได้ด้วยเมล็ดข้างเพียงวันละเพียงเมล็ดเดียว
ไม่ช่วยแก้ปัญหาอะไรเลย ”

When his five followers saw Siddhartha
had given up his fast they lost faith in him.
They no longer believed he had the strength
to live up to his spiritual convictions
and abandoned him.
เมื่อสาวกทั้งห้า เห็นว่าเจ้าชายเลิกอดอาหาร

He feels he tried what’s on offer,they haven’t worked,
and its at this stage that he remembers meditation
that he went into spontaneously in his teens
and he thinks mm,
maybe that is a way through to awakening
because its not taken up the desires
of the body but it is very joyful and happy.

By chance Siddharta came across a musician tuning his sitar.
When the string was too slack it would not play.
When it was too tight it snapped.
Somewhere in the middle lay tuneful harmony.
โดยบังเอิญเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะได้ค้นพบว่า ในการปรับสายเครื่องดนตรี
เมื่อสายตึงเกินไปก็จะขาด เมื่อปรับให้อยู่พอดีตรงกลางจึงจะเล่นได้เสียงไพเราะ

Siddhartha realized that
this simple observation signified something of great importance.
It was the middle way
that would lead him to the state of mind he was looking for
– to a state of tuneful harmony – enlightenment.
But how could he achieve it?

แสดงถึงความสำคัญอันยิ่งใหญ๋ เป็นทางสายกลาง(มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา)
ที่จะนำพระองค์ไปสู่ภาวะจิตที่แสวงหาภาวะที่เสียงดนตรีไพเราะ คือ การตรัสรู้

” And the way that Buddha eventually uses is
what one could call mindfulness or awareness of the body,
which neither ignores it nor tries to forcefully master it,
but it’s a kind of middle way.”
” และวิธีที่พระพุทธเจ้าใช้ในที่สุดก็คือ
แต่เป็นทางสายกลาง ”

The middle way led Siddhartha through the countryside.
He had been traveling for six years,
He had experienced pain and suffering
and had stretched the boundaries of his mind.
พระองค์เดินทางเป็นเวลา 6 ปี
But he’d still not found the inner peace
and harmony he was searching for.
The state of absolute wisdom
and everlasting bliss known as Enlightenment.
และความสุขอันไม่จบสิ้น ที่เรียกว่า ตรัสรู้

Siddhartha arrived at Bodh Gaya.
Here his torment would end.
จะเสด็จถึง พุทธคยา

He sat down beneath a tree and vowed not to leave until he had reached ENLIGHTENMENT.
” Flesh may decay, bones may fall apart,
but I will never leave this place until I find the way to enlightenment.”
” เนื้ออาจเน่าเปื่อยกระดุกอาจแตกหัก

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford):

” He’s no longer giving himself a hard time,
he’s not stressing himself unbearably,
he’s not undergoing anything painful,
he thinks, well life is painful without taking the trouble to make it more painful,
but let me just calmly think things out,think of how life works.”
” พระองค์ทรงไม่ใช่วิธีทรมานกายอีกต่อไป
ไม่ทำให้ตนเองทนไม่ได้ ไม่ทำอะไรให้เจ็บปวด
แต่ขอให้คิดอย่างสงบ คิดว่าชีวิตดำเนินไปอย่างไร”

He starts to focus the mind by attention|to the slow movement of the breath coming
and going out a refined sensation|which exists in the body
just around the nose in a way which|starts to lead to the mind quietening,
stilling, settling, gathering, purifying.
พระองค์เพ่งความสนใจไปที่จิตเพื่อกำหนดลมหายใจเข้าและออก รับรู้สัมผัสอยู่ที่รอบจมูก เพื่อเริ่มนำจิตไปสู่ความสงบ ความนิ่ง ความมั่นคง เพิ่มพูนทำให้บริสุทธิ์ “

Siddhartha’s mind was now so focused
that he could successfully|enter the darkest reaches of his unconscious.
It was now that he would face|his final and greatest torment.
The demon Mara – the Lord of Ego|and illusion appeared before him.
He could make any horror real|in Siddhartha’s mind.
จิตของเจ้าชายสิทธัตถะในตอนนี้ มุ่งเข้าไปสู่จุดที่มืดที่สุดในจิตสำนึก พระองค์กำลังเผชิญกับ การทดสอบครั้งสำคัญครั้งสุดท้าย พญามารและภาพหลอนมาปรากฏต่อหน้า และสามารถสร้างภาพหลอนอันหน้าสะพรึงกลัวขึ้นในจิตใจของเจ้าชาย

It’s very important to remember|that Mara this demon king
is not like the Christian Satan|because he isn’t a tempter
and he isn’t any kind of counterpart|to God,
he is purely psychological forces|which we have within us,
“ มันสำคัญมากที่จะต้องรู้ว่า พญามารไม่เหมือนกับซาตานของชาวคริสเตียนพราะพญามารมิใช่มาลิอให้ทำชั่วและมิ ใช่ผู้ที่อยู่ตรงข้ามกับพระเจ้า แต่เป้นพลังจิตที่เราทุกคนมีอยู่ในตัวของเรา ”

Mara unleashed an army of demons|to attack Siddhartha.
They fired flaming arrows at him.
But mid flight|Siddhartha turned them into lotus blossoms
and they fell harmlessly around him.
Having failed Mara|then tried to seduce Siddhartha
with his tempting daughters.
พญามารปล่อยกองทัพมารมาจู่โจมเจ้าชาย โดยยิงธนูมาที่พระองค์ แต่กลางอากาสเจ้าชายได้เสกธนูให้เป็นดอกบัวตดกรอบพระองค์โดยไม่ทำอันตราย เมื่อล้มเหลวพญามารพยายามต่อไป โดยส่งธิดามาร มายั่วยวนพระองค์

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford)
He’s assailed by the demon king|who is the same time death
and desire very Freudian|that in a way desire is death,
death is desire and in fact the Demon king|offers him his three daughters
who are both passion or lust and aversion|where it is equally bad
if you shy away from this|and say it is disgusting
you are also a slave to passion
– and he can be completely calm|and indifferent
and just gaze at them without|any feelings of attraction or repulsion.
The faces of Mara’s daughters|began to rot before Siddharta’s eyes.
The evil daughters|then disappeared into the earth.
กล่าวว่า “ พระองค์ถูกจู่โจมโดยพญามารผู้เป็นทั้งตัณหาและความตายในเวลาเดียวกัน ตัณหาคือความตาย ความตายคือตัณหา พญามารได้เสนอธิดาทั้ง สาม ให้พระองค์ เป้นผู้ซึ่งมีทั้งตัณหาและราคะ และมันจะร้ายแรงเช่นกัน ถ้าคุณผละหนีและบอกว่าน่าขยะแขยงคุณก็จะตกเป็นทาสของตัณหา เจ้าชายทรงสงบนิ่งไม่มีปฏิกิริยาแค่จ้องมองพวกนั้นโดยไม่มีความรู้สึกหรือ อยากขับไล่พวกเขาไป “
หน้าของธิดาพญามารเริ่มเน่าเปื่อยต่อหน้าเจ้าชาย แล้วธิดามารก็สูญสลายไป

It is in fact|you could say the Buddha’s very recognition
that Mara is an aspect of himself
the total recognition of that|is his enlightenment.
The earth is said to have trembled|as he dispelled the devil.
Siddhartha, now aged 35,|passed through four Janas
to reach enlightenment
and become the Buddha – or Awakened One.
เป็นความจริงที่พูดได้ว่า พระพุทธเจ้าทรงรู้ว่าพญามารคือความคิดในจิตของพระองค์เอง และการรับรู้นี้คือ การตรัสรู้ด้วยตนเอง(สัมมาสัมพุทธเจ้า)

He then spent 7 days beneath the tree in a meditative state of absolute bliss.
This is seen as a state where the mind is incredibly refined and sensitive,
and an image might be of a lake, which is totally still,
which would register even an insect on the surface.
กล่าวกันว่าโลกสั่นสะเทือนเมื่อขับไล่มารร้าย เจ้าชายสิทธัตถะในวัย 35 ชันษา ทรงตรัสรู้เป็น พระสัมมาสัมพุทธเจ้าหรือ ผู้รู้ ผู้ตื่น ผู้เบิกบาน พระองค์ประทับอยู่ใต้ต้นไม้ 7 วัน ในภาวะสมาธิของความสุขสูงสุด
นี่คือภาวะที่จิตบริสุทธิ์และเฉียบแหลม ภาพอาจจะเหมือนทะเลสาปที่นิ่งสนิท จนมองเห็นได้แม้แมลงบนผิวน้ำ

So this is seen as a state where the mind is very,
very powerful as an instrument of knowledge, very sensitive.
In this highly attuned state,
the Buddha saw way to escape
the inevitable cycle of old age sickness and death.
จึงเห็นกันว่าเป็นภาวะที่จิตมีพลังมากมาย เป็นเครืองมือที่เฉียบแหลมมาก
ในภาวะที่ปรับอย่างสูงนี้ พระพุทธเจ้าทรงเห็นวิธีที่จะหลีกเลี่ยงจากวัฎจักรของความขรา ความเจ็บป่วยและตาย

He realized that if we remove desire
we can remove dissatisfaction and suffering from our lives.
A key cause of the painfulness
and frustration of life is craving kind of demanding desires.
So There’s a general mismatch
between how you want things to be and how they actually are.
ทรงตระหนักว่าถ้าเราละความปรารถนาเราก็สามารถละคว่ามไม่พอใจ และความทุกข์ทรมานจากชีวิตของเราได้
สาเหตุสำคัญของความทุกข์ทรมานและคับข้องใจของชีวิตคือการมีความปรารถนาอย่าง รุนแรง จึงไม่สอดคล้องกันระหว่างสิ่งที่คุณต้องการกับสิ่งที่เป็นจริง

The insight the Buddha attained beneath the tree was the birth of Buddhism
– a religion followed today by 400 million people.
The Buddha summed up his wisdom in four noble truths
which are the foundation of all Buddhist beliefs
การเข้าใจอย่างถ่องแท้ที่เกิดกับพระพุทธเจ้าใต้ต้นไม้ เป็นจุดกำเนิดของศาสนาพุทธ ศาสนาที่มีผู้คนนับถือ 400 ล้านคน จนถึงทุกวันนี้
พระพุทธเจ้าทรงสรุปสาระสำคัญทั้งหมดไว้ใน อริยะสัจ สี่ ซึ่งถือเป็นหลักสำคัญในความเชื่อของพุทธศาสนิกชน

The first noble truth recognized that there is suffering in life.
The second diagnosed the cause of that suffering – desire.
In the third truth, like a doctor,
the Buddha revealed that there was a cure for desire.
And in the fourth noble truth he gave the prescription
– how to cure the illness and achieve Enlightenment or Nirvana.
ข้อแรก คือมีความทุกขืในชีวิต
ข้อสอง คือสาเหตุของความทุกข์
ข้อที่สาม เหมือนแพทย์ พระพุทธเจ้าตรัสว่ามีการเยียวยาความปรารถนา
ข้อที่สี่ ทรงชี้แนะถึงวิธีรักษาการป่วยไข้และการบรรลุนิพพาน

The ultimate aim was to reach a state of mind completely free of craving,
ignorance, greed, hatred and delusion,
thereby free of all the causes of future rebirth
when an enlightened person dies they’re seen as going beyond rebirth
to a state beyond if you like space and time and not coming back
so that is seen as a state of liberation.
The Buddha would further teach that morality, meditation and wisdom
were the stepping stones to enlightenment.
He would dedicate the rest of his life helping others to follow this path
– towards freedom from suffering.
จุดประสงค์สุงสุดคือ ภาวะของจิตที่ปราศจากความปรารถนา ความโง่เขลา ความละโมบ ความเกลียดชัง และการเกิดใหม่ในอนาคต เมื่อผู้ที่ตรัสรู้ตายไปพวกเขาจะไม่เกิดใหม่ ถ้าไม่กลับมาเกิดใหม่อีกก็จะเป็นภาวะของความเป็นอิสระ
พระพุทธเจ้าทรงสั่งสอนศีลธรรม การทำสมาธิปฏิปฐาน ซึ่งเป็นขั้นตอนนำพาไปสู่การตรัสรู้ พระองค์อุทิศตนตลอดชีวิต เพื่อช่วยคนอื่นให้ไปตามทางเส้นนี้ คือปลอดจากความทุกข์

As his followers grew in number he went on to set up a school or Sangha
Today a temple stands beside a descendant
of the very tree under which the Buddha became enlightened.
The monks here have become a living library of the Buddha’s teachings.
Chanting his sacred words beneath the Bodhi tree of Enlightenment
is seen by Buddhists to give special power to their practice.
เมื่อสาวกของพระองค์เพิ่มจำนวนมากขึ้น ก็ทรงจัดตั้งโรงเรียนหรือสำนักสงฆ์ ทุกวันนี้มีวิหารอยู่ใต้ต้นไม้ที่สืบทอดจากต้นไม้เดิมที่พระพุทธเจ้าตรัสรู้ พระที่นี่กลายเป็นห้องสมุดที่มีชีวิตของคำสั่งสอนของพระพุทธเจ้า การสวดมนต์ใต้ต้นโพธิ์ที่ตรัสรู้พุทธศาสนิกชนมีความเชื่อว่าเป็นการเพิ่ม พลังพิเศษ

Bihikku Bodhipala ( Mahabodhi Temple)
The chief monk is responsible
for preserving this tradition at the temple.
The most important thing is the practice of his teachings.
Practice diligently, be ever mindful.

So now I say I explain Buddhism in two words,
practice mindfulness.
The path to enlightenment begins with the focusing of the mind
and following a number of commandments.
Morality, meditation and wisdom.
So not to kill, not to steal,
not to have any sexual misconduct,
not to tell a lie and not to have indulge in intoxicating drinks or intoxicants.
” สิ่งสำคัญที่สุดคือการปฏิบัติตามคำสั่งสอนของพระองค์ ด้วยความบากบั่น ความใส่ใจ ตอนนี้อาตมาอธิบายแก่พุทธศาสนิกชนได้ว่า ปกิบัติโดยเต็มใจ
เส้นทางสู่การตรัสรู้ เริ่มต้นด้วยการเพ่งจิตและตามมาด้วยการปฏิบัติตามบทบัญญัติ ศีล สมาธิ และปัญญา คือไม่ฆ่าสัตว์ ไม่ลักขโมย ไม่ประพฤติผิดในกาม ไม่กล่าวคำเท็จ ไม่เสพของมึนเมา นี่คือศีล ข้อห้ามในศาสนาพุทธ “

This was the way of life established by|the Buddha in the very first sangha
นี่คือวิถีชีวิตที่พระพุทธเจ้าบัญญัติไว้ ในการประกาศพระศาสนา

After eight years
he went back to the palace and the family he’d abandoned.
We’re told his father now forgave
the Buddha for the deep hurt he had caused.
King Sudhodhana now realized the importance of his son’s quest.
His stepmother even begged to join his sangha
and she went on to become history’s first nun.
The Buddha is justified in the eyes of all Buddhists of even leaving his wife
and child to go on his solitary journey to try and find what the solution
to life’s problems is and how life should be lived
and for him how life should be lived is the question infinitely more important
than having any possessions or even the company of loved ones.
8 ปี ต่อมาพระองค์เสด็จกลับไปยังพระราชวังและครอบครัวที่พระองค์ละทิ้งมา ตอนนี้พระราชบิดาได้อภัยโทษแก่พระองค์แล้ว พระเจ้าสุทโธธนะตระหนักถึงความสำคัญในการแสวงหาของพระโอรส พระมารดาเลี้ยงได้ขอเข้าร่วมด้วยและได้กลายเป็นแม่ชีองค์แรกในประวัติศาสตร์
พระพุทธเจ้าในสายตาพุทธศาสนิกชน คือ ผู้ที่สละแม้ขายาและโอรส เดินทางไปโดยลำพัง เพื่อแสวงหาการแก้ไขปัญหาของชีวิตและการดำรงชีวิต และสำหรับพระองค์ชีวิตอยู่ได้อย่างไรมีความสำคัญกว่าครอบครองสิ่งใด หรือแม้แต่การมีผู้เป็นที่รัก

The Buddha was to abandon his family again.He set out to teach, for forty years
– passing on to his followers the wisdom|he had attained beneath the bodi tree.
But before he left he ordained his son as a monk.
The Buddha encouraged his followers to live together in a monastery or Sangha
– to help them focus on the path to enlightenment.
พระองค์เสด็จออกไปเทสนาเผยแพร่คำสั่งสอน เป็นเวลา 40 ปี ถ่ายทอดสมาธิปัญญาที่ทรงค้นพบใต้ต้นโพธ์ แต่ก่อนเสด็จไปทรงได้บวชพระโอรส(เป็นเณร)อีกองค์หนึ่ง

Bihikku Bodhipala ( Mahabodhi Temple)
Some people become a monk purely to meditate,
purely to practice meditation, purely to practice the life of a recluse.
Some become a monk to work for the propagation of the religion.
อธิบายว่า บางคนบวชพระเพื่อทำสมาธิอย่างเดียว เพื่อดำเนินชีวิตอย่างสันโดษ บางคนบวชพระเพื่อเผยแพร่พระศาสนา “

Monks from all over the world
come to live in monasteries established|around the temple of the Bodi Tree.
Non-Monks or lay Buddhists, come here too, to learn from them.
Monks must be celibate and give up every selfish desire.
พระจากทั่วโลกมาอยู่ยังอารามที่สร้างขึ้น รอบวัดพระศรีมหาโพธิ์ ผู้ที่ไม่ใช่พระหรือพุทธสาสนิกชน มาที่นี่เช่นกันเพื่อเรียนรู้ธรรมะ พระต้องเป็นโสดและสละความปรารถนาที่เห็นแก่ตัว

Thich Hanh Hao (Veitnumease Buddhaist Monk)

And that is the one part of the training to get rid of self tendencies,
tendencies to always think about yourself
and put yourself fully in the context of the community of the sanga
กล่าวว่า นั่นคือส่วนหนึ่งของการฝึก เพื่อขจัดความเห็นแก่ตัว ความคิดถึงแต่ตัวเอง และนำตัวเองมาอยู่ในชุมชนของสงฆ์ การอยู่รวมกัน “

Then when all the sacrifices have been made the hard work begins
– committing long chants or mantras to memory.
Mantras such as this have a purpose
– they are designed to test the monk’s memory,
concentration and commitment to the Buddha’s teachings.
Over the centuries his message has evolved into a number of different traditions,
with their own interpretations and monastic practices.
But the Buddha taught that lay people
can also follow the path to eternal bliss and ultimate wisdom.
แล้วเมื่อการเสียสละทั้งหมดนั้นเกิดขึ้น งานหนักก็เริ่มต้น มีการสวดมนต์อย่างยาวนานจนถึงการท่องจำ การสวดมนต์อย่างยาวนานมีจุดประสงค์ทดสอบความจำของพระ ความใส่ใจและการปฏิบัติตามคำสั่งสอนของพระพุทธเจ้า
หลายศตวรรษ ต่อมา คำสอนของพระองค์วิวัฒนาการไปในหลายวัฒนธรรมมีการแปลความและปฏิบัติตามแบบแผน ของตนเอง แต่คำสอนของพระพุทธเจ้ายังคงเป็นไปตามแนวทาง เพื่อความสุขอันสูงสุดและสติปัฏฐาน

Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont)
Most westerners are not drawn to Buddhism as a way of leaving society behind
they’re drawn to the practical of meditation as a way of being
more effective within society and that’s a way in which
the message of Buddhism takes on a very different caste
because it becomes a form of self improvement a way of dealing
with the stresses of life a way of clarifying your goals and objectives.

กล่าวว่า “ ชาวตะวันตกส่วนใหญ่ มิได้เข้าหาพระพุทธศาสนาเพื่อเป็นวิถีละทิ้งสังคม และเป้นวิธีที่คำสอนทางพระพุทธศาสนาใช้ได้หลายชนชั้น เพราะมันกลายเป็นรูปแบบการพัฒนาตนเอง วิธีจัดการกับความเครียดของชีวิต วิธีเข้าใจแจ่มแจ้งในวัตถุประสงค์ของตนเอง “

Many westerners are especially attracted|to Buddhist meditation.

Shantum Seth (Zen Teacher)
” I think all of us sometimes glimpse|that magic and mystery of the moment
what meditation does is to help us touch that more often,
it helps us to be more calm and controlled in our mind
and we can create conditions that allow us to come into
a state of awareness of interdependence,|of impermanence, of nirvana.
Some schools of Buddhism believe the Buddha was superhuman
a magical figure who consorted with gods and performed miracles.
Others that he was no more than
a human being and they believe it is this that adds power to his message.
กล่าวว่า “ ผมคิดว่าพวกเราทุกคน บางครั้งก็เห็นความมหัศจรรย์และลึกลับของช่วงเวลาการทำสมาธิ
ความไม่แน่นอนและนิพพาน ”

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford)
There is no doubt that the Buddha wished to be remembered as a human being
with human frailties not perhaps frailties of the intellect or moral frailties
but certainly physical frailties
and the Buddha suffers from back pain towards the end of his life
he suffers from various physical complaints and weaknesses.
The Buddha would die at the age of eighty from a common illness – food poisoning.
It is said that before
passing away he fell into a deep trance on his journey from this world to Nirvana
– a state of eternal bliss
– free at last from rebirth,
free at last from suffering and death.
” ไม่ต้องสงสัยว่าพระพุทธเจ้าทรงมีพระประสงค์จะให้จดจำพระองค์ในฐานะมนุษย์ธรรมดา
ที่มีความเปราะบาง มิใช่ความเปราะบางทางสติปัญญาหรือจิตใจ
พระเจ้าทรงเสด็จปรินิพพาน เมื่อวัย 80 ชันษาจากโรคธรรมดาคือ อาหารเป็นพิษ
ภาวะของความสุขอันนิรันดร์ อิสระจากการเกิดใหม่

A council was assembled to record for posterity the Buddha’s teachings.
These were learnt by heart and handed down the centuries by generations of monks.
The Buddha’s body was cremated.
And his remains were preserved.
ได้มีการจัดตั้งตั้งสภาสงฆ์ สังคยนาคำสอนของพระพุทธเจ้า

They were enshrined two hundred years later by India’s first Emperor King Ashoka
who converted to Buddhism.
He built vast monuments or stuppas
and erected pillars to mark the key sites of the Buddha’s life.
200 ปีต่อมาพระเจ้าอโศกมหาราช มหาราชองค์แรกของอินเดียนำมาบูชา

Asoka then becomes|an absolutely key figure,
both in terms|of the actual spread of Buddhism but then as a model
for future Buddhist leaders throughout Asia|they look back to Ashoka as
the kind of ideal king|and supporter of Buddhism.

Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont) :
So far as we know the Emperor Asoka
who ruled over two thirds of modern India
in the middle of the 3rd century BC,
helped monks to send out missions|to countries bordering India,
missionaries were sent up into Kashmir|to Nepal and certainly Sri Lanka.
Prof.Kavin Trainor (University of Vermont) :
กล่าวว่า “ เท่าที่รู้พระเจ้าอโศกมหาราช ผู้ซึ่งปกครองมากกว่า 2 ใน 3 ของอินเดียยุคใหม่ ตอนกลางของศตวรรษที่ 3 ก่อนคริสตกาล ได้ทรงส่งคระผู้แทนสงฆ์ไปยังประเทศที่มีชายแดนติดกับอินเดีย คณะผู้แทนถูกส่งไปยังแคชเมียร์ จนถึงเนปาลและศรีลังกา

They converted the king,|the king give his patronize to Buddhism
and Sri Lanka has therefore been|a Buddhist country from that day to this.
And in country after country|we know over many centuries
that this is the way|that Buddhism was successfully implanted.
ในประเทศแล้วประเทศเล่า ที่เรารู้ว่าหลายศตวรรษมาแล้ว

Ashoka’s pillars outlived Buddhism in India
– they withstood Muslim invasions
and survived to catch the attention of the first colonial archaeologists.
This gave a very significant impetus to the revival of Buddhism
– the desire to go back to the places associated with the Buddha.
Imagining Buddhism for people in the West
but these investigations also become
the basest for a revival|within Buddhism in Asia.

Today the sites associated|with the Budha’s life attract tourists
and pilgrims flock to Bodh Gaya|to follow in the Buddha’s footsteps,
hoping to find, as he did,eternal peace and happiness
and a cure for suffering and death.
และผู้แสวงหาบุญให้หลั่งไหลไปยัง พุทธคยา
และตามรอยพระบาทพระพุทธเจ้า หวังว่าเมื่อตายไปแล้ว

Prof.Richard Gombrich (Balliol College,Oxford)
” It’s a great irony that after the Buddha’s death
the person who preached of the uselessness of ritual and also the uselessness
of personality cult became the object of ritual worship
and as big a personality cult as has ever existed in history.”
” มันน่าขันมากที่หลังจากที่พระพุทธเจ้าปรินิพพาน
กลายเป็นผู้ที่ได้รับการเคารพบูชาที่ยิ่งใหญ่ เท่าที่เคยมีมาในประวัติศาสตร์เลยทีเดียว ”

Buddhist temples have been built in Bodh Gaya representing
the different traditions from around the world.
Buddhism, in all its forms, has come home, to the Bodi tree,
to the place where once a prince reached enlightenment and became the Buddha.
วัดทางพุทธศาสนาที่สร้างขึ้นที่ พุทธคยา
ศาสนาพุทธในทุกรูปแบบได้กลับมายังต้นศรีมหาโพธิ์ ที่ซึ่งครั้งหนึ่งได้ตรัสรู้เป็นพระพุทธเจ้า

Bihikku Bodhipala ( Mahabodhi Temple):
The Buddha attained enlightenment on that fleeting moment of a wink,
this moment,fleeting moment is the time that takes to realize
that moment cannot be explained.

Bihikku Bodhipala ( Mahabodhi Temple) อธิบายว่า
” พระพุทธเจ้าทรงตรัสรู้ ในช่วงเวลาแค่กระพริบตาเท่านั้น
ช่วงเวลาที่ตระหนักว่าช่วงเวลานั้นไม่สามารถอธิบายได้ ”

That special moment gave birth|to the first world religion
– A religion without a God
where the path to Nirvana
lies in the mind of each and every one of us.
อยู่ในใจของแต่ละคน และพวกเราทุกคน

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